This a compilation of plant names published in the following work:

Wright, Joseph, 1898-1905. The English dialect dictionary. Oxford University Press. London. 6 vol.

The first part includes all plants, native, cultivated or introduced in the British Isles as well as superior fungi and alga, mosses, liverworts and lichens.

A second part lists the names of plant life and plant parts.

In the appendices can be found the cognates of a certain number of plant names, assembled under a common root.

The English and the scientific names are from the following books:

Blamey, Marjorie & Christopher Grey-Wilson, 1989. The illustrated flora of Britain and northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton, London.

Rose, Francis, 1989. Colour identification guide to the grasses, sedges, rushes and ferns of the British Isles and north-western Europe. Penguin Group, London.

Names not found in Wright's dictionary are from the preceding two books, or from  Grieve.

Very often the names have been applied to similar species which are not differentiated by non-botanists. Since there are some 30 species of roses and over 50 species of dandelions, the names for "dandelion" are assembled under the Common Dandelion Taraxacum officinale, and those for "wild rose" are assembled under the the Dog Rose Rosa canina.

Due to the diffulty of identification and imprecise descriptions by witnesses, a certain number of names have been erroneously applied. Such errors are most evident when the species named does not have the character implied by the name. When applied to a species other than the original, the name loses its semantic value. *ex....

Uncertain attributions are followed by a question mark (?).

Many names have been attributed to the Greater Stitchwort Stellaria holostea, an inconspicuous plant without any medicinal use, while the Common Chickweed  Stellaria media a very common and widespread garden pest seems to have been forgotten. In the same way, the Heath Rush Juncus squarrosus is often cited, but the Sharp-flowered Rush Juncus articulatus, the commonest species is hardly mentioned.




Grieve, M. 1976 (Edited and introduced by C.F. Leyel). A modern herbal. Penguin Books (first published 1936).

Blamey, Marjorie & Christopher Grey-Wilson, 1989. The illustrated flora of Britain and northern Europe. Hodder & Stoughton, London.

Klein, Ernest, 1971. A comprehensive etymological dictionary of the English language. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York.

Mabberley, D.J., C.E. Jarvis, and B.E. Juniper, 2001. The name of the apple. Telopea 9 (2): 421-430. (Nomenclature of the orchard apple).

Rose, Francis, 1989. Colour identification guide to the grasses, rushes and ferns of the British Isles and north-western Europe. Penguin, London.

Pearsall, Judy & Bill Trumble, 2001. The Oxford English reference dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.

Stubbs, F.B., 1986. Provisional keys to British plant galls. British Plant Gall Society.

Wright, Joseph, 1898-1905. The English dialect dictionary. London. 6 vol. Reprinted 1970.




App. appendix

AS: Anglo-Saxon

dial. dialectal

I. Island

n.Irel. northern Ireland

N.Irel. (political)

prob. probably

reg.: regional, in preference to dialectal

sp. species unidentified

spp. several species of the genus

subsp. subspecies

transl. translation

var., in scientific names: variety

(-) no locality attested, prob. England; often the botanical name of the species

(?) = doubtful attribution




Following scientific research, botanical nomenclature has changed considerably in the last century. The following is a list of 272 names used at the time of Wright, now considered as synonyms:


Achillea arvensis = Achillea millefolium

Adiantum nigrum = Adiantum capillus-veneris

Adonis autumnalis = Adonis annua

Agropyron repens = Elitrygia repens

Agrostis alba = Agrostis gigantea

Agrostis filiformis = Agrostis capillaris

Agrostis setacea = Agrostis curtisii

Agrostis vulgaris = Agrostis capillaris

Aira cespitosa = Deschampsia cespitosa

Alchemilla arvensis = Aphanes arvensis

Alliaria officinalis = Alliaria petiolata

Allium porrum = Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum

Allosurus crispus = Cryptogramma crispa

Alopecurus agrestis = Alopecurus myosuroides

Aloysia citriodora = Aloysia triphylla

Alyssum maritimum = Lobularia maritima

Ampelopsis hederacea = Parthenocissus quinquefolia

Anacharis alsinastrum = Elodea canadensis

Anchusa sempervirens = Pentaglottis sempervirens

Anemone hepatica = Hepatica nobilis

Anemone pulsatilla = Pulsatilla vulgaris

Antennaria margaritacea = Anaphalis margaritacea

Anthemis nobilis = Chamaemelum nobile

Anthriscus podagraria = Aegopodium podagraria

Anthyllis vulgaris = Anthyllis vulneraria subsp. vulgaris

Apargia autumnalis = Leontodon autumnalis

Arabis albida = Arabis caucasica

Arabis deltoide = Aubretia deltoides

Araucaria imbricata = Araucaria araucana

Arenaria maritima = Spergularia media

Armeria vulgaris = Armeria maritima

Arrhenaterum avenaceus = Arrhenatherum elatius

Artemisia argentea = Artemisia absinthium

Arundo phragmites = Phragmites australis

Asafoetida narthex = Ferula narthex

Asperula odorata = Galium odoratum

Aspidium aculeatum = Polystichum aculeatum

Aspidium oreopteris = Oreopteris limbosperma

Asplenium adiantum-nigrum = Adiantum capillus-veneris

Asplenium ceterach = Ceterach officinarum

Asplenium scolopendrium = Phyllitis scolopendrium

Atriplex hastata = Atriplex prostrata

Auricula ursi = Primula auricula

Avena elatior = Arrhenatherum elatior

Avena nuda = Avena sativa

Avena orientalis = Avena sativa

Barbarea praecox = Barbarea verna

Bartsia odontites = Odontites verna

Bartsia viscosa = Parentucellia viscosa

Berula angustifolia = Berula erecta

Betula alba = Betula pendula

Blechnum boreale = Blechnum spicant

Borago orientalis = Trachystemon orientalis

Brassica campestris (turnip) = Brassica rapa subsp. campestris

Brassica campestris (rutabaga) = Brassica napus subsp. rapifera var. napobrassica

Brassica fimbriata = Brassica oleracea var. acephala

Brassica sylvestris = Brassica oleracea

Bromus mollis = Bromus hordaceus

Bunium flexuosum = Bunium bulbocastanum

Caesalpinia bonducella = Caesalpinia bonduc

Calamagrostis variegata = Phalaris arundinacea var. variegata

Calamantha acinos = Acinos arvensis

Calamintha officinalis = Calamintha nepeta

Calla aethiopica = Zantedeschia aethiopica

Campanula hybrida = Legousia hybrida

Carduus acaulis = Carlina acaulis

Carduus arvensis = Cirsium arvense

Carduus benedictus = Cnicus benedictus

Carduus eriophorus = Cirsium eriophorum

Carduus lanceolatus = Cirsium vulgare

Carduus palustris = Cirsium palustre

Carduus heterophyllus = Carduus acanthoides

Carduus lanceolatus = Cirsium vulgare

Carduus marianus = Sylibum marianum

Carduus palustris = Cirsium palustre

Carex glauca = Carex flacca

Castanea vesca = Castanea sativa

Centaurium perfoliatum = Blackstonia perfoliata

Centaurium umbellatum = Centaurium erythraea

Cerastium vulgatum = Cerastium fontanum

Cerasus laurocerasus = Prunus laurocerasus

Cerastium triviale = Cerastium fontanum

Chaerophyllum sylvestre = Anthriscus sylvestris

Cheiranthus cheiri = Erysimum cheiri

Chlora perfoliata = Blackstonia perfoliata

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum = Leucanthemum vulgare

Chrysanthemum sinense = Dendrathema hybrids

Chrysanthemum vulgare = Tanacetum vulgare

Cochlearia armoracia = Armoracia rusticana

Comarum palustre = Potentilla palustris

Conopodium denudatum = Conopodium majus

Convolvulus sepium = Calystegia sepium

Convolvulus soldanella = Calystegia soldanella

Corchorus japonicus = Kerria japonica

Cotyledon umbilicus = Umbilicus rupestris

Crataegus pyracantha = Pyrancantha coccinea

Cratageus oxyacantha = Crataegus laevigata

Crocus albiflorus = Crocus vernus

Cuscuta trifolii = Cuscuta epithymum

Cyclamen europaeum = Cyclamen purpurascens

Cytisus laburnum = Laburnum anagyroides

Delphinium consolida = Consolida regalis

Dianthus caesius = Dianthus gratianopolitanus

Dielytra spectabilis = Dicentra spectabilis

Dipsacus sylvestris = Dipsacus fullonum

Draba verna = Erophila verna

Equisetum limosum = Equisetum fluviatile

Erica hibernica = Daboecia cantabrica

Ervum hirsutum = Vicia hirsuta

Erysimum alliaria = Alliaria petiolata

Erythraea centaurium = Centaurium erythraea

Euphrasia officinalis = Euphrasia rostkoviana

Festuca sylvatica = Brachypodium sylvaticum

Filago germanica = Filago vulgaris

Francoa ramosa = Francoa sonchifolia

Fucus digitatus = Laminaria digitata

Fucus esculentus = Alaria esculenta

Galeopsis versicolor = Galeopsis speciosa

Galium cruciata = Cruciata laevipes

Genista tinctoria = Isatis tinctoria

Geranium striatum = Geranium versicolor

Glaucium luteum = Glaucium flavum

Glyceria aquatica = Glyceria maxima

Gnaphalium dioicum = Antennaria dioica

Gnaphalium sylvaticum = Omalotheca sylvatica

Halymenia palmata = Fucus palmatus

Habenaria chlorantha = Platanthera chlorantha

Helianthemum vulgare = Helianthemum nummularium

Heliotropium peruvianum = Heliotropium arborescens

Helminthia echioides = Picris echioides

Helosciadium nodiflorum = Apium nodiflorum

Hordeum maritimum = Hordeum marinum

Hordeum pratense = Hordeum secalinum

Houstonia caerulea = Hedyotis caerulea

Hydrangea hortensis = Hydrangea macrophylla

Hypericum quandrangulum = Hypericum tetrapterum

Imperatoria ostruthium = Peucedanum ostruthium

Inula dysenterica = Pulicaria dysenterica

Iris xiphoides = Iris latifolia

Jateorhiza palmata = Jateorhiza calumba

Juncus glaucus = Juncus inflexus

Juncus lamprocarpus = Juncus articulatus

Koenigia maritima = Koenigia islandica

Larix europaea = Larix decidua

Lastrea filix-mas = Dryopteris filix-mas

Lathyrus macrorrhizus = Lathyrus linifolius

Lavandula vera = Lavandula angustifolia

Leontodon taraxacum = Taraxacum officinale

Linaria cymbalaria = Cymbalaria muralis

Linaria minor = Chaenorhinum minus

Lolium italicum = Lolium multiflorum

Lunaria biennis = Lunaria annua

Lychnis coronaria = Silene coronaria

Lychnis dioica = Silene dioica

Lychnis diurna = Silene latifolia

Lychnis githago = Agrostemma githago

Lychnis latifolia = Silene latifolia

Lychnis vespertina = Silena latifolia

Lychnis viscaria = Silene viscaria

Lychnis viscosa = Silene viscaria

Lycopodium selago = Huperzia selago

Matricaria chamomilla = Chamomilla recutita

Matricaria inodora = Matricaria perforata

Matricaria parthenium = Tanacetum parthenium

Medicago maculata = Madicago arabica

Melilotus caeruleus = Trigonella caerulea

Mentha hirsuta = Mentha aquatica

Mentha rotundifolia = Mentha suaveolens

Mentha viridis = Mentha spicata

Myosotis palustris = Myosotis scorpioides

Myosurus agrestis = Myosurus myosuroides

Narcissus biflorus = Narcissus x medioluteus

Nepeta glechoma = Glechoma hederacea

Nephrodium cristatum = Dryopteris cristata

Nephrodium filix-mas = Dryopteris filix-mas

Nephrodium oreopteris = Oreopteris limbosperma

Nephrodium thelypteris = Thelypteris palustris

Onobrychis sativa = Onobrychis viciifolia

Ononis arvensis = Ononis spinosa

Ononis campestris = Ononis spinosa

Ononis repens = Ononis spinosa

Orchis latifolia = Dactylorhiza maialis

Orchis maculata = Dactylorhiza maculata

Orobus tuberosus = Lathyrus linifolius

Oxyacantha crataegus = Crataegus laevigata

Paeonia officinalis = Paeonia, cultivars

Palmaria palmata = Fucus palmatus

Petasites vulgaris = Petasites hybridus

Peucedanum sativum = Pastinaca sativa

Peziza coccinea = Sarcoscypha coccinea

Peziza cochleata = Otidea cochleata

Phaseolus multiflorum var. coccinea = Phaseolus coccineus

Phellandrium aquaticum = Oenanthe aquatica

Phlox acutifolium = Phlox paniculata var. acutifolium

Phytolacca decandra = Phytolacca acinos

Poa aquatica = Glyceria maxima

Polyanthus vulgaris = Primula "polyanthus" (a hybrid primrose)

Polygonum convolvulus = Fallopia convolvulus

Polygonum fagopyrum = Fagopyron esculentum

Potentilla fragariastrum = Potentilla sterilis

Potentilla tormentilla = Potentilla erecta

Primula variabilis = Primula elatior

Prunus insititia = Prunus domestica var. insititia

Psamma arenaria = Ammophila arenaria

Pteridium filix-mas = Dryopteris filix-mas

Pteris aquilina = Pteridium aquilinum

Pyrus aria = Sorbus aria

Pyrus aucuparia = Sorbus aucuparia

Pyrus communis = Malus pyrus

Pyrus cydonia = Cydonum cotoneum

Pyrus domestica = Malus pyrus

Pyrus japonica = Malus pyrifolia

Pyrus malus (crab-apple) = Malus sylvestris

Pyrus malus (cultivated apple-tree) = Malus pumila

Pyrus scandica = Sorbus intermedia

Pyrus torminalis = Sorbus torminalis

Quercus robus var. sessiliflora = Quercus petraea

Quercus sessiliflora = Quercus petraea

Quercus sessilis = Quercus petraea

Rhamnus frangula = Frangula alnus

Rhinanthus crista-galli = Rhinanthus angustifolius

Ribes grossularia = Ribes uva-crispa

Rosa spinosissima = Rosa pimpinellifolia

Rumex aquatica = Rumex hydrolapathum

Salicornia herbacea = Salicornia europaea

Salix amygdalina = Salix triandra

Sambucus pubens = Sambucus racemosa

Salix rubra = Salix purpurea

Sarcoscypha coccinea = Sarcoscypha austriaca

Sarothamnus scoparius = Cytisus scoparius

Saxifraga sarmentosa = Saxifraga stolonifera

Scabiosa arvensis = Knautia arvensis

Scabiosa succisa = Succisa pratensis

Scirpus maritimus = Bolboschoenus maritimus

Scirpus cespitosus = Trichophorum cespitosum

Scirpus lacustris = Schoenoplectus lacustris

Scirpus palustris = Eleocharis palustris

Scolopendrium vulgare = Phillitis scolopendrium

Scrophularia aquatica = Scrophularia auriculata

Sedum glaucum = Sedum hispanicum

Sedum reflexum = Sedum rupestre

Senebiera coronopus = Coronopus squamatus

Serratula arvensis = Cirsium arvense

Silene cucubalus = Silene vulgaris

Silene inflata = Silene vulgaris

Silene maritima = Silene uniflora

Sium angustifolium = Berula erecta

Sium nodiflorum = Apium nodiflorum

Sparganium ramosum = Sparganium erectum

Spiraea filipendula = Filipendula ulmaria

Spiranthes autumnalis = Spiranthes spiralis

Stachys lanata = Stachys byzantina

Sticta pulmonaria = Pulmonaria longifolia

Symphoricarpos racemosus = Symphoricarpos rivularis

Tanacetum parthenium = Tanacetum parthenium

Taraxacum dens-leonis = Taraxacum officinale

Torilis anthriscus = Torilis japonica

Tilia parvifolia = Tilia cordata

Trichomanes radicans = Trichomanes speciosum

Trifolium minus = Trifolium dubium

Trifolium procumbens = Trifolium campestre

Triticum caninum = Elymus caninus

Triticum junceum = Elymus farctus

Triticum repens = Elitrygia repens

Tritoma uvaria = Kniphofia uvaria

Tropaeolum canariense = Tropaeolum peregrinum

Ulex nanus = Ulex minor

Ulmus montana = Ulmus glabra

Valerianella olitoria = Valerianella locusta

Vallota purpurea = Cyrtanthus speciosus

Viola mariana = Campanula trachelium

Viola sylvestris, V. sylvatica = Viola reichenbachiana




In the left column: scientific names in bold characters. In the right column the English names.

Arrows refer to appendices.



Abies alba


Silver Fir

fir Scot., England, fur Cumb., e.York., vir n.Cy. (Dan. fyr, Sw. fure, Germ föhre), candle-fir Elgin, Aberdeen (the wood used for lighting purposes)

The cones: apple Linc., Wor., deal-apple e.Anglia, fir-apple nw. Cumb., Linc., Sussex, Hmp (the cone), chat York., n.Linc. (id.) cave Hamp., fir-apple Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., I.Wight., Nhp., Leic., Berk., e.Suff., Sussex, Hamp., fir-bull Shrop. (the cones of conifers (Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba app. 2.1

Acer campestre


Field Maple

maplin-tree Glouc., dog-oak York., Not., cat-oak w.York., oak Devon, locks-and-keys n.Linc., Devon (the seed vessels), shackles Devon (the seeds) see Rhinanthus; peacock's tail Hert., whitty-bushes Shrop. (?)

Acer pseudoplatanus



maple s.Cumb., England, may, may-tree Corn., share w.Cy., segumber Devon, seggy e.York., horse-shoe Wilt., whistle-wood Selk., n.Cy., Nhb. (see Salix)

The winged seeds: cats-and-keys Devon, locks-and-keys n.Linc., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, knives-and-forks Kent, cock-and-hens n. Cy. ("leaf beds" = the winged seeds)

Achillea millefolium



yarrel Suff., yallow Lanc., yock-yall, york-yall Linc., yarra-grass Essex, yarroway e.Angl., yarwe OE, gearwe AS, prob. from yar (York., Lanc.) acid, sour; hurr (Linc., Kent., Sussex) tart, astringent, rough-tasting; stanch-grass Aberd. ("stink grass")

thousand-leaf Ches., Lanc., thousand-leaf grass Staff., thousand-leaved clover Berw., Rxb., Nhb., milfoil (-) (French mille-feuilles), hundred-leaved grass Nhb.

 green-arrow Suff., stop-blood s.Pemb., nose-bleed Hamp., devil's nettle Ches., breakstone-parsley Staff., hemming-and-sewing Hamp., old-man's mustard Linc. (for moustache), traveller's ease Wilt., betsey Kent, wild pepper Nhb., cammock Devon (see Ononis natrix), tansy Ches. (= prob. Tanacetum vulgare)

Achillea ptarmica



love-entangled, seven-years-love Devon, seven-year's love Glouc., w.Som., Devon, bachelor’s button Nhp., moolery-tea Caith., goose-tongue w.York., Nhp., War., Shrop., white-weed Antrim, fair-maid-of-France Midl. (a cultivated variety), bastard pellatory

Achillea serrata

sweet-mace Not., mace (-) (yarrow has a strong odour)

Alps Yarrow

Acinos arvensis

mother-of-thyme Som.,


Aconitum napellus



monk's cowl Shrop., monk-wood Ches., masterwort (-), monkey('s) hood Devon, pope's ode Nhp. (hood), grandmother's bonnet Som., granny’s nightcap Suff., grandmother's nightcap n.York., Ches., Nrf., Kent, old-granny's nightcap Oxf., auld-wife-hud, old-wife's huid Cumb. (hood), old-woman's nightcap n.York., Oxf., s.Buck., old-woman n.Linc., friar's-caps Devon, soldier('s) cap Nhp., Turk's cap Nhp., Som., cuckoo's cap Ches., Shrop., cuckold's cap Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex app. 2.3; curly-murly-nightcap Gall.

captain-over-the-garden n.York., dove-flower Berk., Venus'-doves Devon, Venus'-chariot-drawn-by-doves Berk., Essex, Noahs-ark Glamorgan, Jacob's chariot Essex, horses-and-cariages Hamp., bulls-and wheys n.Westm., adam-and-eve Norf “on lifting the hood of the flower, the upper petals appear as two little figures”, face-in-hood Nrf., boots-and-shoes Corn., barfut w.Wor., bear's foot Not., Nhb., Hamp. (attributed to Alchemilla vulgaris and Helleborus), luckie's mutch Lanark, cat-tail Shrop., wolf's bane (-)

Acorus calamus

sweet rush War., sweet-seg s.Cy., sweet-flag Ches.

Sweet Flag

Adiantum capillus-veneris


Maiden-hair Fern

fairy-fern w.Irel., dudder-grass Nrf., lady-anthrer-grerninum Hamp., black-spem Hamp. (for “sperm”; so named from its blackish spores)

Adonis aestivalis

rose-ruby (-)

Summer Pheasant's-eye

Adonis annua

jack-in-the-green Wilt., love-lies-bleeding Glouc.


Adoxa moschatellina

musk-weed w.York., town-hall clock Cumb., good-friday flower Dorset


Aegopodium podagraria


Ground Elder

ash-weed Wilt., w.Som. “from its casual resemblance to the leaf of the ash”, ground ash Ches., Linc., War., sweet ash Som., wild ash Cumb., white-ash Som., ground-elder Hamp., War.,Wor., sw.Linc., I.Wight, wild elder Buck., wild alder Linc., wild esh nw.Cumb., Dutch-elder Wilt., dog-eller Ches., dwarf-elder Hamp. (= prob. Sambucus ebulus), bishop-weed Scotland, bishop’s weed n.Irel., Dorset, jump-about War., Oxf., jack-jump-about Nhp., War., Hert., garden plague Antrim, gout-weed (-)

Aesculus hippocastanum


Horse Chestnut

conker Ches., s.Not., s.Linc., Oxf., Wilt., Som. "So called by the boys, who bore holes through them and hang them on pieces of string, and then challenge one another to try which can break the other's conquer by striking it with his own" (in Wright) app. 2.4; hoblionker Wor., Hrf. Radnor (the fruit), oblionker-tree Wor., Glouc. (hoblionker is a game played with horse-chestnut threaded on a string; apparently from hobble "shake, dandle, toss", and conker the horse-chestnut), towtree Hrf., bongy, bongay Suff., cob Surrey, cobbler Staff., Wor., also a round pebble, a small round lump (of coal etc.), pig-nut Som., lamb Devon (the flower)

Aethusa cynapium

fool's parsley Bnff., Ches., Rutland, w.Cy.

Fool's Parsley

Agrimonia eupatoria

haemony Glouc. (from the scient. name), rat-tail Dur., harvest-lice Hamp.


Agrostemma githago


Corn Cockle

popple Irel., Scot., Nhb., Cumb., York., Linc., e.Anglia, poppel N.Irel., papple Scot., poppy Ches. (the seed; popple = also pebble, cobble), sea-pink N.Irel.,

Agrostemma githago



cokeweed Scot., cockweed (-), cock's caim Lanark (comb), corn-cockle n.York., Glouc., Essex, Dorset, Suff. app. 2.3; corn-pink Nhp., corn-flower Ches., campion "perh. from obs. campion, transl. of Greek lukhnis stephanōmatikē a plant used for (champion's) garlands" Oxf. Dict., calourie Scot.: Renfrew

Agrostis capillaris


Common Bent-grass

bent n.York., bent-grass Nhb., Cumb., Westm., black-squitch War., fine-bent n.Cy., fine-john Ches., monkey's grass Sussex, dun-john Ches. (Agrostis sp.), bread-and-cheese Sussex (?)

Agrostis curtisii

rabbit's grass, deer's foot grass I.Wight,

Bristle Bent-grass

Agrostis gigantea

marsh-bent Ayr., Sussex, marsh-grass Banff.

Black Bent-grass

Agrostis stolonifera


Creeping Bent-grass

water-twitch Cumb., running-twitch Midl., fiorin-grass Irel., black-couch, couchy-black Wilt., black-grass Essex, couchy-bent Irel. (see Elitrygia repens), quitch Glamorgan (see Elitrygia repens), orcheston-grass Wilt. (also Poa trivialis), red-robin Wilt., Dorset, Devon (?)

Aira caryophyllea

silver-hair Banff,

Silver Hair-grass

Ajuga reptans



wood-betony Irel., herb-flower Dorset, blind-man’s hand Hamp., babies’ shoes Wilt., dead-men's bellows Nhb.

Alcea rosea

hollyhock (-) (for hock, see Malva sylvestris)


Alisma plantago-aquatica

devil's spoon Scot. (also attributed improperly to Potamogeton natans)

Common Water-plantain

Alium sativum

country-man's treacle Corn.


Alliaria petiolata


Garlic Mustard

hedge-garlick Cumb., jack-in-the-edge I.Wight, Dorset, n.Linc., Hert., Leic. (hedge), jack-of-the-hedge Ches., jack-by-the-edge n.York. w.Ches., Merioneth, Sussex, Devon, jack-by-the-edge-side Dorset, jack-run-along-the-edge Wilt., jack-in-the-bush Glouc., beggar-man’s oatmeal Leic., penny-hedge, penny-in-the-hedge War., Nrf., poor man's mustard Linc., lamb's pummy Som.

Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum

leek Scot., Nhb., Nhp., Som., London, scallion Rxb., York., Corn. (see Allium ascalonicum)


Allium ascalonicum



seibow, sibow, syboe, sybow, sebow, seybie, seybo, seybow, sibba Scot., sybo Scot., Nhb., sybee Nhb. (Ofr. chibole, from Spanish cebolla, Ital. cipolla "onion"  app. 2.7.1), see also onion

scallion Scot., England, Irel., skallion Lanc., scullion Corn., skellion Cumb. (O.French eschalogne), shallot (French échalotte) (bulb formed with scales)

Allium cepa var. cepa



ownion Devon, einyun s.War., inion Nhb., Leic., Nhp., Shrop., Hert., London, e.Anglia, Hamp., iniun Hamp., injen, injyen, innon London, inin Glouc., n.Wilt., Som., innin, innion Glouc., inon Nhp., War., s.Wor., Hrf., Glouc., Berk., Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, inun se.Wor., inyan w.Irel., inian Devon, inyon Ches., Corn., unjun n.Linc., ingyun e.Suff., ingun Fife, ne.Kent, w.Som., e.Corn., ingon Aberd., Kent, Hamp., ingin Frf., Rnf., Devon, inggon London, ingeon Devon, ingen Nrf., ingan Banff, Aberd., Perth, Ayr., Lanark, Edinb., Selk., hingin Devon (French oignon)

chibbole War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., chibbal War., s.Wor., Corn., chibbel I.Wight, chibble Oxf., Devon, cribbles Wilt. (prob. a typo for chibbles), chivvels Herf., Hamp., Corn., chiboal w.Som., chipple Wilt., Dorset, gibble Glamorgan, Glouc., Wilt., Dorset, Som., gibbal Glamorgan, gibbol Glouc., Som., gibbole Dorset, jibbal Glouc., gibbel Som. (young onion with the green stalk attached) (OF chibole app. 2.7.1;

bullneck Scot., War. "an onion that does not form a bulb but grows somewhat like a leek", scallion Scot., England, Irel. "an onion with an undeveloped bulb, and various stages of the plant" see Wright.

Allium fistulosum

holleke (16th century),

Welsh onion

Allium sativum



porret York., Hrf., pouret(t), purrit Hrf., poor man's treacle Ches., churles' treacle Ches. (regarded as a treacle or antidote to the bite of venomous animals), clow Scot. (one of the lamina of a head of garlic; = clove)

Allium schoenoprasum

cives Corn., chive Nhb., sives (-), sye Scot. French cive)


Allium scorodoprasum

sand-tines w.York.

Sand Leek

Allium ursinum



garlick Irel., Ches., War., Glouc., Surrey, I.Wight, wild garlic Ches., War., Wor., Glouc., Surrey., Devon, garlick-wild Ches., War., Glouc., Surrey (OE gārleac, from gār spear, and lēac leek - Oxford Dict.), wild leek Nhb., gipsy-onion(s) s.Cy., I. Wight, ram York., rame Pemb., rams n&w.York., ramsh Perth, ramp n.York., ne.Lanc., ramps Irel., Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., Lanc., yamps Scot., n.Dmf., ramsey Nrf., Devon., ramsy Nrf., ramsies Nfr., Devon, ramson(s) Irel., Scot., England, ramsden I.Wight, rosems York., Stf., rommy, roms w.York., ram's horns Glouc. (from ram "rancid, strong-flavoured, offensive in smell or taste", stink-plant n.Linc., stink-pot York., devil-posy Shrop.

Allium vineale

crow-garlic Nhb., Hert., crow-onion War., se.Wor., wild onions War., Aaron's beard n.Wil.

Crow Garlic

Alnus glutinosa


Common Alder

alder Engl., aller s.Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Durham, York., Lanc., Sussex, er Westm., ellar Cumb., oller Nhb., War., ollern Shrop., arl, orl Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Reading, Glouc., aul Hrf., harrul, orl-wood Glouc., arl-tree, arl-timber Hrf., oler Ches., owler w.York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, nw.Derby, n.Linc., Shrop., Hrf., owlder w.York., black-aller w.Som., waller, wallow, wallur Ches., Staff., Shrop. (waller has also been attributed to Salix alba), woller, wuller, wullow Shrop., hollard Som. (in Sussex hollard = dead branches of trees) (OHG erla), dog-tree n.Cy., w.York., ne.Lanc., whistle-wood n.Cy., Nhb. (see Salix), Irish mahogany Waterford

Alopecurus myosuroides


Black Grass

black-grass Bdf., e.Anglia, Sussex, I.Wight, black-squitch War., mouse-tails Wilt., land-grass Bdf., n.Som., bennet-weed Hert.

Alopecurus pratensis


Meadox Foxtail

fox-tail Staff., Suss., fox-tail grass Glouc., elbowwit-grass Lanark, bent Shrop. (collective for grasses), hunger-weed Ches. (attributed to "Alopecurus arvensis").

Aloysia triphylla

lemon-plant w.Som., Devon, Corn., lemon-tree s.Cy., I.Wight

Lemon Verbena

Althaea officinalis

marsh-mallice I.Wight, marsh-mallow York., Suff., white-mallow (-), wimote Shrop.

Marsh Mallow

Alyssum saxatile

gold-dust Devon

Golden Alyssum

Amaranthus caudatus

cat-tail Nrf., Devon,


Amelanchier canadensis

solembury Glouc.

Snowy Mespilus

Ammophila arenaria



marem, marrum, murram Nrf., marum Surrey, moran Irel., marram-grass (ON mar-ālmr, marhālmr, literally "sea-straw" - Wright; the leaves are washed ashore and form wide beds or mats of dried plants), mat-grass (see preceding explanation), star n.Cy., Lanc., star-thack Linc. "coarse grass on sandy soil used for thatching", sea-holm Corn., sea-reed (-), mat-grass Nrf., Hamp., sigh Linc., sea-bent Cumb., bent n.Cy., e.Anglia, bentle e.Anglia (collective names for grasses)

Anagallis arvensis


Scarlet Pimpernel

shepherd's calendar Devon, shepherd's clock Glouc., shepherd's watch Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, shepherd's dial Midl., shepherd's sundial Suff., shepherd's warning Linc., shepherd's delight n.Linc., w.Som., shepherd's glass Not., Rutland, shepherd's weather-glass n.York., Not., Lanc., Linc., Nhp., Wilt., Devon, poor man's weather-glass Lanark, Cumb., Ches., Nhp., War., Huntingdon, ploughman's weatherglass Wilt., old-man Wilt., shepherd’s clock, shepherd-joy Buck., Dorset john-that-goes-to-bed-at-noon s.Ches., Nhp., sun-flower sw.Cumb., bird’s eye Oxf., Berw., Wilt., bird’s tongue Nrf., peeper w.York., tom-pimpernel York., pimpernel

Anagallis tenella


Bog Pimpernel

poor-man’s weather-glass Hamp., weatherglass Lakel., s.Buck., Wilt. (see A. arvensis)

Anaphalis margaritacea


Pearly Everlasting

moor-everlasting Nhb., ever-white Nhp., lady-never-fade Glouc., white-wort Hamp., white gowlan Nhb., cat's foot w.York., pearl cudweed (-), old-sow Nrf.

Anchusa officinalis

eyebright w.Som.


Andromeda polifolia

marsh-holymore Dorset, marsh rosemary (-), bog-bell w.York.

Bog Rosemary

Anemone nemorosa


Wood Anemone

wind-flower Twd., York., Ches., Not., Leic., Nhp., War., Glouc., s.Buck., Devon; also attributed to Pulsatilla vulgaris, formerly named Anemone vulgaris (A bookish translation of the scientific name Anemone believed to mean "flower of the wind". However, the Greek anemonè is a loan from Arabic Saqà'iq an-nu`màn a red flower, from nu`màn "blood". The explanation "flower that opens on the slightest wind" is wrong

anemony (-), nemony Lanc., Linc., Rutland, Glouc., Som., Devon, nemmony Rutland, nemeny Devon, neminie Lanc., Glouc., emony, Linc., Som., Devon, enemy Linc., cuckoo Wilt., cuckoo-flower York., Ches., s.Buck., Wilt., cuckoo-spit Devon, w.Wor. (like the preceding appellation, these names probably refer to Pulsatilla vulgaris (formerly Anemone vulgaris), on account of its bell-like flowers; applied to Anemone nemorosa, these names fail to offer an explanation), drop-of-snow e.Sussex, moll-of-the-wood War., nedcullion N.Irel. (Gaelic Irel. nead cailleach), moon-flower Dor., soldier, white-soldiers s.Buck., bow-bells, underground Devon, snakes’ eye Dorset, snake-flower sw.Linc., Dorset (?), smell-foxes Hamp., smell-smock Hert. (this plant has no odour)

Anethum graveolens

dill n.Linc.  app. 3.5


Angelica sylvestris


Wild Angelica

smooth-kesh Cumb., ground-ash n.Cy., Nhb., ground-elder Ches. jack-jump-about Nhp., eggs-and-bacon Nhp., ghost-kex w.York., oat-skeiters Moray, water-kesh Cumb. (see Berula), fellon-grass Rxb. (see Imperatoria)

Anthemis arvensis, Anthemis cotula

margon, morgan Sussex., Hamp., I.Wight, margin I.Wight  app. 1.5.1; madder Hamp., Wil., Dorset, mader Dorset

Corn Chamomile, Stinking Chamomile

Anthemis cotula


Stinking Chamomile

maithen Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Dorset, meäden Dorset, mavin sussex, mathen Glouc., mathan Hamp., nathan War., mathern Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, mather War., Hrf., mathig Shrop., maythern, moythern Shrop., mauthern Wilt., mawthern I.Wight, may-tops Nhb. (attributed to Laminaria, a seaweed, along with may-weed), may-weed, may-wide Hert., Bdf., Hrf., Hamp., Sussex, Midl., Suff., Kent, Devon, maitheweed n.Cy., maythes ME, mayeðe OE.

dog-daisy w.York., Shrop., Kent, Devon, dog-banner m.York., dog-binder n.York., dog-fennel Midl., War., dog-finkle York., n.Cy. (not "tinkle"), dogstinks Lakel., dog-stinkers w.York.

horse-daisy Buck., balder(‘s) brae Nhb. (Norw. dial. baldrbraa, ON baldrs-bra, Swed. dial balders-bra, Dan. baldersbraa), poison-daisy Sussex

Anthoxanthum odoratum

pig-grass n.York., spikenard Wilt. app. 2.9.2

Sweet Vernal-grass

Anthriscus sylvestris


Cow Parsley

devil’s-meat, devil’s-metal Shetl., devil's oatmeal Surr., devil's parsley Ches., badman’s oatmeal Antrim, naughty-man's oatmeal, naughty-man's plaything War. (and other Umbelliferae, some being poisonous), dog-parsley Hert., sheep's parsley Nrf., Kent, hare-parsley Som., coney-parsley Suss., cow-parsley Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex., Hamp., cow-mumble Cumb., Nrf., Essex, cow-weed Essex (also other Umbelliferae, see Heracleum, Anthemis cotula), wild parsley e.Radnor, Linc., Buck. (here attributed to the Shepherd's Needle), rat's bane w.Som., rabbit's food Buck., rabbit's meat York., n.Linc., War., Sussex, w.Som., n.Devon, scab-flower Cumb., hech-how Scot., ha-ho Irel. (da-ho appears to be a misprint), hi-ho, hi-how N.Irel., Londonderry (cf. Scot. hech-how for the Hemlock Conium maculatum), ciss ne.Lanc., cisweed n.York., cicely York., Derby (French dial. sesseû, French séséli, Latin seselis, Greek séselis "castor-oil plant or an Umbelliferous plant"), white-weed e.York., sweet-ash Glouc., bun, bunnon n.York. (see see bun in Plant parts), hemlock York., Ches., sw.Linc., keddle-dock Ches., keeshion N.Irel., keglus Ches. (see kecks in Umbelliferae), may-weed Wor. (see Anthemis cotula)

Anthyllis vulneraria


Vetch (Kidney)

yellow crow's foot Buck., twin w.York., hens-and-chickens Wor., dog's paise Banff, lamb-toe War., Nhp., Rutland, craw-nebs Nhb., pincushion Wilt., lady's cushion, ladies' cushion Wilt., double-ladies' double-pincushion

Antirrhinum majus



dragon Irel., Scot., Engl., draygon Scot., dragon's head Berw., dragon's mouth n.Linc., tiger's mouth Suff., Sussex, lion's jaw Kent, lion's mouth Sussex, bunny-mouth Kent, Surrey (see bun in Plant parts), calve's-snout Corn., dog('s) mouth Linc., w.York., Oxf., Devon, dog-snout Nrf., dog-barker Oxf., rabbit's flower Devon, rabbit's mouth Kent, rabbit Wilt., catch-fly n.Linc. (it is a somewhat sticky plant), mother's nightcap Nhb.

Aphanes arvensis



dew-cup Selkirk, elf-shot Gall., colickwort Hert., bowel-hive-grass Scot. (bowel-hive is a disease), fire-grass England (beneficial in erysipelas), parsley-breakstone Scot., Ork., War., Suff., lamb's foot Lanc., bear’s foot, ladies-mantle (?) (-)

Apium graveolens


Wild Celery

salary York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Wor., Oxf., Buck., Som., sallary Lanc., sallery s.Lanc., sollery se.Wor., names related to salt; the Common Sorrel, a sour plant, is also called celery, salad; ache Engl. (French ache), mile Rxb., see Chenopodium album

Apium nodiflorum


Fool's Watercress

water case (for cress), pied water-cress Corn. swine's cress Ork., n.York., cow-cress Hamp., fool's cress*, brook-lime War. (see Veronica beccabunga), bilder Devon, fen-berry Corn. (erroneous attribution)

Aquilegia vulgaris


Common Columbine

nightcaps Wilt., granny's nightcap Glouc., granny-hoods w.York., granny’s-bonnet Dorset, fool's cap w.York., primrose-soldiers Wilt., Cain-and-Abel s.Wilt. (see Orchis), boots-and-shoes Corn., hens-and-chickens Nrf., lady's shoes e.Anglia, lady's slipper Corn., bachelor’s button Wilt., colourbine Linc., Nhp., curranbine Ches., cullavine n.Cy., Cumb., York., cullenby w.Cumb. (= columbine), snap-gragon Devon

Arabis alpina


Alpine Rockcress

may Som., march-and-may Nhp., bishop’s wig, white-rock, white mays Ches., snow-drift Devon, snow-on-the-mountain, snow-upon-the-mountain e.Linc., War., Hrf., Glouc., Sussex. Wilt., Som., snow-in-summer s.Not., Sussex, dusty-husband Ches., aunt hannah e.Anglia, lady's cushion, ladies' cushion Linc., alice Devon (Alyssum ?),

Arabis caucasica

snow-on-the-mountain War.

Garden Arabis

Arachis hypogaea

monkey-nut Lanc.


Araucaria araucana

puzzle-monkey w.Som., monkey-tree w.Som.,


Arbutus unedo

cane-apple Irel.: Cork, caithne Gaelic: Killarney, strawberry-tree w.Som.

Strawberry Tree

Arctium lappa


Greater Burdock

cuckuts I.Wight, cucket, cuckit n.York. cuckle I.W., Dorset, Devon, Corn., cuckhold Corn., n.York., Cumb., Glouc., e.Anglia., Dorset, Som., Devon, cuckoo Dorset, cuckoldy-burrs Cumb., crockelty-bur Cumb., cuckoldy-burr-busses Som., Devon, Corn., cuckold-dock w.Som., nw.Devon., Corn., cuckle-dock Corn. (for dock see Water Lily), cuckold-buttons Som., Devon, cuckle-button Devon., cuckle-moors Dorset, cockle Wilt., Hamp., Dorset, cockly-burrs, cockelty-burrs Cumb., cockle-buttons Devon, Corn.  app. 2.3, bazzies Kent (the flower-heads), buddy-bud n.Cy., Nhb. (the burr), butter-dock Corn. (see Rumex obtusifolius), bur-docken Scot., n.York., burdock (-), hurr-burr Leic., Shrop., tuzzy-muzzy Glouc., n.Wilt. (also "ragged, dishevelled; from the appearance of its burrs), sticky buttons Devon, bachelor’s button Devon (the burrs) billy-button, beggar’s buttons Devon (the burrs), soldier('s) buttons Wilt., clots n. Cy. York. Ches., clouts Ches., cluts n. Cy., clot-bur Cumb., n.York. clod-bur Cumb., York., clite Glouc. (see Galium aparine), thistle Devon., flapper-bags Scot.

Arctium minus

cuckoo-buttons w.Som., n.Devon, guckoo-buttons w.Som. (see Arctium lappa)

Lesser Burdock

Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi



nashag Caith., gnashicks Banff (Gaelic Scotland cnaimhseag), brawlins n.Scot., rapperdandy Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., burren-myrtle Galway (so called from its abundance on the Burren mountains), cranberry Aberdeen (see Vaccinium oxycoccum),

Areca catechu

ragonet (areca nut) (-)

Betel Nut

Arenaria islandica ?

benner-gowan Scot.

mountain daisy

Aristolochia sipho

dutchman's pipe Glouc., pipe-vine (-).

Broad-leaved Birthwort

Armeria maritima


Sea Pink

sea-daisy Aberd., s.Scot., n.Cy., Sussex, Devon, Corn., sea-pink Ayr., s.Scot., n.Cy., Cumb., w.York., ne.Lanc., n.Ches., Staff., Devon, Corn., scawfell-pink Cumb., marsh-daisy Cumb. (?), french-pink, cliff-rose, rock-rose Devon, sweet-gabies Kent, edging Devon (plant suitable for edgings), pincushion Devon, Suff., lady's cushion, ladies' cushion Ches., Dorset, lady's pincushion Hamp., profolium Hamp., thrift Devon ?




Armoracia rusticana

reefort, reefart, rifart, ryfart Scot. (French raifort "pungent root"), red-cole, red coal, rae-coll Clydesdale

Horse Radish

Arrhenatherum elatior

haver-grass Cumb.

False Oat-grass

Arrhenatherum elatior subsp. bulbosum


False Oat-grass (tuberous subspecies)

button-grass, button-twitch, butter-twitch Cumb., swine-arnots Scot. (s. earth nut; has tuberous roots), swine's murricks Shetl., Ork. knot-couch Wilt., knot-grass Scot., e.Cy., Essex, Nhb., Wilt., Hert., Bdf. (here attributed to Agrostis stolonifera) from its tubers "looking... like a string of beads"; lobbin-grass Londonderry (the bulbous variety), onion-couch Glouc., w.Cy., onion-grass S.Buck., pearl, pearl-grass Antrim, Donegal, pirl-grass Scot. (the preceeding names on account of the small pearl-like tubers peculiar to this variety)

Artemisia abrotanum



lad's-love Scot., Aberdeen, Gall., n.Cy., Nhb., n.Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Midl., nw.Derby, Not., Linc., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., e.Anglia, Sussex, s.Hamp., Devon, Corn., boy’s love Ches., maid's love Nhp., old-man York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Rutland, Nhp., War., Wor., Shrop., Oxf., London, Cumb., Nrf., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Devon, Corn., old-man's love Nhb., Berk., Suff., maiden's ruin Devon, maiden-delight Corn., mother-wood n.Linc., sitherwood Scot., Cumb., Irel., sidderwood Gall., sovereign-wood Essex, sloven-wood e.Anglia (for "southern wood"), apple-reengie Fife, apple-ringie, apple-ringy, apple-riennie Scot., overengie Aberd., "may prob. be a corr. of Ofr. averoine" Wright, citron-wood Scot.

Artemisia absinthium



wormod, wermod Nhb., wormuth, wormeth Devon, wermout Pemb., wormit n.Cy., Nhb., Devon, wormöd, wermöd OE (< worm wood, whence also Germ. Wermut; the plant was used in the preparation of a medicine as well as an alcoholic drink), old-woman Shrop. (corruption of wormod ?), gall-wood Scot.

Artemisia maritima

savin Sussex

Sea Wormwood

Artemisia vulgaris



muggert Irel, Scot., Cumb., muggart Banff, Aberd., sw.Scot., Gall., mugger Ayr., muggons, muggins Scot., mugweed Ches., mugwood Dur., Cumb., York., Shrop., mingwort n.Cy., mugwort Caith.

 bulwand Shetl. & Ork., bowlocks Wigtown, moofard Caith., fat-hen s.Buck., apple-pie Ches., green-ginger Linc., fellon-herb Corn., mother-wort e.York. (also A. absinthia), sailor's-tobacco Huntingdon.

Arum maculatum


Cuckoo Pint

jack-in-the-box, jack-in-box N.Irel., Berw., w.Som., jack-in-the-pulpit n.Linc., school-master e.Sussex., lamb-in-a-pulpit Devon, lamb-lakens, lamb-lakins n.Cy., Nhb., Nhp.

parson-in-his-smock n.Linc., parson-in-the-pulpit York., Ches., w.Som. (also attributed to Aconitum napellus), parson-and-clerk Devon, priest's pilly Westm., priest's pintel Dur., Cumb., Derby, Linc., priesties Lanc.

poison-berry n.York., Wilt., Devon, poison-maur Devon, poison-root Wilt., ox-berry w.Wor. (the fruit), adder-grass Nhb., adder’s meat, adder’s tongue Devon, Corn. (the bright red berries), snake's meat Devon, snake's victuals Glouc., Wilt., snake's flower sw.Cumb., Hamp., Dorset, snake's food Devon

bloody-fingers Hamp., Berw., bloody man’s fingers Hrf., Radnor, Wor. (from its scarlet berries), bloody thumbs e.Wor., dead-man's fingers Surrey, Inverness, Wor., Nhb., Buck., w.Som., Shrop., Glouc., Kent, Sussex, Devon, deed-man's fingers, -thumb War., dead-man's hand Hamp., War., Glouc., Sussex, Nhb., dead-man's thumb Nhb., Sussex, de'il's foot, devil's foot Nhb., dead-man's bells Scot., Aberdeen, Nhb., dead-men's bellows n.Cy., bloody-bells n.York., ramson Cumb, ram's horns Sussex, ramp (see Allium ursinum), great dragon, small-dragon Sussex, long-purple War.

cocky-baby I.Wight, parsonbilly-cock n.York., cuckoo-cock Essex, cuckoo-pint Sussex, e.Anglia., Nhp., Leic., cuckoo-flower Nhp., cuckoe-pint s.Berw., cuckoo-point w.York.  app. 2.3; bobbins n.Scot., bobby-joan Nhp., Corn., bobbin-and-joan Nhp., dog-bobbins Nhp., dog-cocks Wilt., dog's dibble n.Devon, dog's ears s.Pemb., dog's lugs Fife, dog's tassel, dog's tausle Som., dog-spear Som., hobble-gobbles Nhp., Kent, dog-fingers Wales, Som., dog-mint s.Pemb., lily-grass Sussex, lily Wilt., wild lily Devon, aron Scot., arrow-root Dorset (Lat. arum < Greek aron). (Some of the preceeding names have been attributed to species of orchids or other flowers).

drake's feet n.Linc., crake-feet n&e.York., trape-feet n.Linc. craw-feet York., crow-foot Lanc., Dur., Cumb., York., craw-taes Cumb., crowdy-kates Devon.

wake-robin Scot., Rxb., Ches., War., Dorset, War., Berk., Sussex, Corn. (also attributed to Silene latifolia and to an orchid Dactylorhiza maculata).

Asparagus officinalis (cultivated)


Asparagus (cultivated)

sparrygrass, sparrow-grass Scot., grass War., Wor., Nrf., Sussex, London sparragrass e.York., se.Wor., sparrergrass Berk., sperage Glouc. (corruptions of asparagus)

Asperula cynanchica

shepherd's bedstraw Glouc., quinancy-wort


Asplenium ruta-muraria

rue-  Devon

Wall Rue

Aster tripolium


Sea Aster

michaelmas-daisy Ches., Devon, farewell-daisy, farewell-summer Wilt., summer('s) farewell Som., Dorset (a late bloomer), musk-button Glouc., hog's beans Essex

Astragalus glycyphyllos

wild liquorice Lanark

Wild Liquorice

Athyrium filix-femina

lady-bracken Rxb., Dmf.

Lady Fern

Atriplex hortensis

golden-herb n.Cy., butter-leaves Glouc., mercury Linc. ( prob. Mercurialis), orache (French arroche)


Atriplex patula

fat-hen Dur., Nhb., w.York., e.Anglia (see Chenopodium album), orach (French arroche)

Common Orache

Atriplex prostrata

hard-head Leic. (see Centaurea nigra)

Spear-leaved Orache

Atropa belladonna


Deadly Nightshade

dwale Scot., York., Devon, dwal, dwale-bluth, dwale-flower Devon (to dwall, dwale = to wander in mind), deadly-dwale, wolf's bane, drowsy mandragora, dreamy mandragora Frf., satan-cherries n.York., naughty-man's cherry Buck., mekilwort Scot. (prob. me-kill-), dog-berry Dur., jacob's ladder Ayr.

Aubretia deltoides

sheerwort Dorset


Aucuba japonica

sparked-laurel Som. (sparked = variegated)

Spotted Laurel

Avena fatua

wild corn Scot., Rxb., flaver Scot.: Dmf., kentish-longtails Kent, poor oats Som.

Wild Oat

Avena sativa subsp. sativa


Cultivated Oat

awt Lanc., aet, ate Shetl., ait Scot., Berw., Nhb., Cumb., n.York., eet m.York., yait Cumb., m.York., yeat Nhb., Cumb., yet Nhb., Dur., e.Anglia, Devon, yett Nhb., yit Scot., oath Wxf., owet Devon, uet m.York., w.York., Rutland, wet, whet Devon, wet-corn n.York., wat York., whoat York., Lanc., Ches., Staff., Derby, whooat w.York., whot n&w.York., s.Lanc., n.Linc., woat Cumb. Ches., sw.Linc., Dorset, Som., wot Lakel., Cumb., York., nw.Linc, Hamp., wōt, wuet m.York., wud Lanc., Ches., wut w.York., e.Lanc., Ches., Derby, n.Linc., Rutland, War., Shrop., Glouc., Berk., Hert., Cumb., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., whut Lanc., Surrey, Sussex, wuth I.Wight, Wilt., w.Som., Devon app. 2.10

haver Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Linc., havre Cumb., havver Cumb., Westm., York., Linc., aver w.York., hauver Scot., haber, hauber n.Cy. (Dutch haver, Norw. dial. havre, Swed. hafre, e.Fries hafer, Germ. hafer "oat").

 corn Scot., N.Irel., York., nw.Derby, Nhp., Hunt., flop-oats nw.Devon, cow-flop, Devon side-aways n.York., way-corn York. "when growing along roads", reed-oat Ches., horse-tail oats Bdf. (a variety).

graan w.York., graain Berk., I.Wight, grain Scot., England, grin N.Irel. (husks of oat) (Germ. granne), skeg Nor., Corn. "bearded oats" (ON skegg "beard"), pellas, pelles, pillas, pillis, pillus, pilez Corn. (Avena sativa subsp. orientalis)

Ballota nigra


Black Horehound

wirral, worral, wurral Wilt., dunny-leaf nettle s.Buck., double-dumb-nettle Wilt., stinking-roger Shrop., horehound (-)

Barbarea vulgaris


Common Wintercress

yellow-weed s.Scot., n.Cy., yellow-rocket War., Lanark, yellow july-flower Lanark, yellow cress w.York., land-cress York., War., Midl., s.Cy., I.Wight

Bellis perennis



daisy Scot., Irel., Ches., Linc., Devon, app. 1.8 (not "eye of the day", 'from its opening and closing its flower with the daylight' (not factual), gracy-daisy Devon, dog-daisy n.Cy., Cumb., York., Lanc., n.Linc., march-daisy, shepherd's daisy, silver-pennies Nhp., bairnwort York., bennert Durham, banwood, bessy-banwood e.York., banewort, banwort, banwood, benwort Nhb., Cumb. York., banward s.Durham, hens-and-chickens w.York., Ches., Nhp., War., Shrop., Oxf., Surrey, w.Som., Devon, clocker an' bords Nhb. ("hen and chicks), mother-of-a-thousand Nhp. (it flecks lawns and meadows in large quantities), cockiloorie, cockaloorie Shetlands, cat-posy Cumb., curl-doddy sw.Scot., button w.York., se.Linc. bachelor’s button Linc., Shrop., billy-button Shrop., sweep n.York., dicky-dairy Ches. "A children's name for almost any flower", nails Wilt., bruisewort England, baiyan-flower ne.Lanc., gowan Scot., Nhb., Cmb., Dur., gowan-head Dmf., gowan-tap Lanark (the head of a daisy), gowlan(d) n.Cy. Caith, Nhb., Devon, Mary-gowland Wooler; gowan, gowlan etc. meaning "yellow" are names given to several species of yellow flowers and are prob. misapplied to the daisy, a white flower.

Berberis vulgaris



pipperidge n.Cy., Cumb., Linc., Hert., e.Anglia., s.Cy., Hamp., Suff., Essex, pepperidge Hert., Suff., piperidge Cumb., piprick Linc. (from its sour berries), wood-sore Oxf. ("sour"), red-pip Hamp., maiden-barberry War., guild(-tree) Selk.

Bertholletia excelsa

shoe-nut Devon (from its shape)

Brazil Nut

Berula erecta

water-kex w.York., water-parsley Kent

Lesser Water-parsnip

Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima

wild spinach Irel., I.Wight

Sea Beet

Beta vulgaris var. flavescens

butter-leaves Shrop.

Chard, Sicilian Beet

Beta vulgaris var. rapacea



mangle York., Not., Linc., Suff., mangel-wurzel, mangold-wurzel England (Germ. mangold "beer", wurzel "root"), root-of-scarcity Bdf.

Betula pendula


Silver Birch

birk Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Derby, Not., Linc., burk Cumb., York. brick Nhb., birken Scot., Nhb. (Dan. birk, Norw. bjerk, Sw. björk), bedwen Westm., Corn. (Welsh bedwen, Breton bezven), paper-beech Wilt.

Blackstonia perfoliata

yellow-centaury w.York., yellow-sanctuary Ches.


Blechnum spicant

herring-bone fern Cumb.

Hard Fern

Bolboschoenus maritimus

spurt-grass Kent.

Sea Club-rush

Borago officinalis



star-flower, bee-bread, bee-plant Devon, flavour-plant War., cool-tankard Nhp. (used in a beverage called cool-tankard)

Botrychium lunaria

moon-wort Banff  app. 2.11; shoe-the-horse Cumb., unshoe-the-horse Cumb.


Brachypodium sylvaticum

anghill-grass Midlands (anthill?)

False Brome

Brassica napus

smooth-cadlock n.Cy., Midl., shirt Scot., winter rape


Brassica napus subsp. rapifera var. napobrassica

swaddie Caith. ("Swedish"), Swede turnip (-), baga-root Corn., baggie Scot., Nhb., rutabaga English (Swedish dial. rotabagge), rooty-baker Corn. (for rutabaga), yellow Not.

Swede, Rutabaga

Brassica napus var. oleifera

yellow-weed Ches., yellow-flower Ches. cole(wort) n.Linc., Hert. (see Kale)

 Oil Seed Rape

Brassica nigra

carlock Glouc., Essex (see Sinapis arvensis)

Black Mustard

Brassica oleracea

wild cole Nhb., wild kale Nhb., cave n.Cy.

Wild Cabbage

Brassica oleracea var. acephala


Kale, Curled Kale

kole Shetl., Ork., colewort (-), kale Irel., Scot., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Glouc., kail Scot., N.Irel., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Lakel., Cumb., Westm., York., Ches., Bdf., kayle Wexf., cael ne.York., cail m.York., keal Scot. n.Cy., Cumb., Westm., York., ne.Lanc., Derby, Glouc., keale Cumb., e.York, keall Cumb., keayle Westm., keeal n&e.York., keel n.Cy., kel Ches., kele, kyel, kyell Nhb., kial Scot., n.York. "cabbage, green of all kinds", kale-runt Scot., Banff, Ayr., Edinb., Gall., N.Irel. (the stem).

curly-greens Cumb., crilly-greens nw.Devon (curly); curdly-greens w.Som., wintergreen w.Som., early-hearts Down (mature, early cabbages), curly-kale, curly-kail Scot., curly-plant e.Fife

Brassica oleracea var. botrytis

curlyflower n.Linc., curly Scot., Perth, N.Irel., Antrim, curl-doddy Scot. (see Pinus sylvestris)


Brassica oleracea var. botrytis forma asparagoides

brockilow War., Wor., Cumb., Corn., broccolow Corn.


Brassica oleracea var. capitata



cole n.Cy., York., Derby, Pemb., Linc., Hert., s.Cy., Sussex, Som., Devon, Corn., coul Som., caul nw.Devon, Corn., cowl Pemb., bowkail, boll-kail Scot.: Perth, popple Cumb. (the seed; popple = also pebble, cobble), callards I. Wight, Hamp. (leaves and shoots)

Brassica oleracea var. capitata

red-cail Scot. (the red variety)

Red Cabbage

Brassica oleracea var. caulorapa

green-kail Scot.


Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera

feather-legs Nhp., nob Suff., Devon,

Brussel sprouts

Brassica rapa subsp. campestris var. rapifera



turnip Scot., Nhb., Lakel., Midl., Derby, Linc. Oxf., Buck., Suff., Wilt., Devon, carlock England widespread, York., Berw., Nhp., Suff., Essex, carlic Bedf., careluck Glouc., charlock Sussex, churlick Hamp., kerlack Not., Nhp., kerlick Berw., Oxf. (see Sinapis arvensis), naphew Shrop. (French naveau, modern navet), stark n.Cy. (a variety of turnip), knoll Kent, dowball Linc., purple-top

Briza media


Common Quaking-grass

doddle-grass Sussex, Wilt., Devon, didder-grass Lanc., diddery-docks Dur., dawther-grass Kent (dodder), dothering-dick n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., dothering-dickies n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., dothering-dillies Dur. app. 3.5; dothering-docks n.York., dothering-ducks e.Dur., dothering-grass Lakel., Cumb., Westm., York., n.Lanc., dothering jockies York., dothering-nancy Cumb. totter-bobs sw.Lanc., tottering-grass w.York., totty-grass se.Lanc app. 3.1

trembling-grass York., s.Lanc., Ches., Suff., tremblin-grass, ladies' hair Nhb., thrimlin-jockies e.York. (trembling), swaggering-grass Sussex, wiggle-waggle Sussex, wigwag-wanton Buck., wigwagon, wagtails Wilt., whackering-grass w.York.  app. 3.6

 quake-grass Sussex, quaker Lanc., quaker-grass York., ne.Lanc., Ches., Nhp., Wor., Berk., w.Som., cow-quakers, cow-quake Ches., Derby, Shrop., Nhp., w.York., earth-quakes Nhp., quakan-grass Nhb.

 shiver-grass Berk., Hamp., shivery-shakeries Wilt., shaker Ches., n.Linc., Shrop., Wilt., shaking-grass Shrop., s.Buck., Devon, shaky-grass Buck, Devon (attributed to Populus tremula), hay-shakers Ches., silver-shakers Rxb., Dmf., Gall., silver-shakle Gall., lady-shake w.York., lady's hair, ladies' hair Nhb., Linc., e.Anglia, maid('s)-hair Nrf., I.Wight, fairy-grass Limerick, nodding-Isabel Lanc., silver-ginglers Rxb., shimmy Wilt., Somer. (attributed to Calystegia sepium), suisilk Not  app. 3.2; woman's tongue Berk.

Bromus hordaceus


Soft Brome

lob-grass Hamp., w.Som., lop-grass Glouc., Hamp. (from the hanging spike; lob = to droop, especially of leaves), haver-grass Cumb., duck-havver Cumb. (Germ. hafer "oat"), erwuts Dorset (for "oats"), bashaw-grass Buck., goose-grass Nhb., goose-corn Cumb., cock-grass Cumb., cock-head e. Anglia, Nfr., n. Suss., cock-and-hens Waterford, Nhb., Devon bull-grass Roxb., Nhb., blubber-grass e.Anglia, bob-grass Wilt., Dorset, mouse-ear grass w.York., okrabung Shetl., Ork.,

Bromus secalinus


Rye Brome

droke York., drook Ches., drauk Nrf., drawk York., Ches., Nrf. (see Lolium temulentum), cheat Linc., chess(grass), cheese-seed weed Hert., goose-corn Scot.

Bryonia dioica


White Bryony

hedge-grape Wor., jack-in-the-edge Hamp. (hedge), Canterbury-jack Kent, elphamy n.Cy., wild vine Ches., War., Hamp., wild hop York., hop Glouc. (by confusion), wild cucumber War., poisoning-berries w.York., snake-berry Suff., tetter-berry Hamp., perhaps because of the red pimple-like (tetter) berries, ache Corn. (ache-mor bryony root), cow's lick Nrf., murrain, murrain-berries Nrf., murrain-root Hamp. (the root).

Buddleia globosa


Orange Ball Tree

Bunium bulbocastanum


Great Pignut

earthnut Irel., Scot., England, aerthnut Som., arnot n.Irel., Scot., Clyde, arnut Scot., Roxb., Ayr., n.Cy. Nhb., Westm., w.York., arrnut N.Irel., Antrim, Down, Donegal, aunut n.York., awnut n.Cy., earnit Ayr., ernit sw.Scot., ernut Toxb., Dmf., yarnut n.Cy., w.York., n.Linc., Ches., n.Linc., yannut, yennet, e.York., yennut n.York., yernut York., Ches., yethnut Ches., yownut, yonut Westm., yearthnuts s.Lanc., yarnut Scot., Nhb., Lanc., Linc., hornic Scot., yowe-yonut, yowe-yornut, yower, ewer Cumb., gernut n.Cy., York., hare-nut Wxf., w.York., e.Lanc., Dorset, vare-nut, fare-nut, fern-nut Corn., gernut n.Cy., York., gennet York., jurnut n.Cy., Ches., Nhp., job-jurnal, jock-jurnals, jacky-jurnal Cumb. (French gernotte, jarnotte < Norw. dial. jordnot, literally "earth nut"), ground-nut Hert., Som., pig-nut Scot., Ayr., n.Cy., Westm., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Not., Linc., Nhp., War., Shrop., Huntingdon, Midl., Suss., Suff., Essex., Wilt., Som., peg-nut Midl., pig's nut w.Som., underground-nut nw.Devon.

bad man’s bread York., devil's oatmeal, devil's bread York., swine-bread Inverness, cat-nut York., gourlock Gall., gourlins Scot., curluns Gall., hornecks Scot., lousy-arnut Aberdeen, Perth, lucy-arnut Fife, scabb-hands, scabbly-hands Cumb., killas, killimore, kelly Corn. (see Umbelliferae), Cain-and-Abel w.Durham (?)

Caesalpinia bonducella

molluka Scot., crospunk Scot. "drifted to the shores of the western islands", Virgin-Mary's nut w.Scot.,

Molucca Bean

Calamintha nepeta

cat-mint York., dog-mint s.Pemb.

Lesser Calamint

Calendula officinalis



lady's purses Ches., Shrop., mally-gowl n.York., gool e.Suff., gollan(d) Nhb., m.York., lady-gold Derby (gowl, gollan = goul, gold, yellow  app. 1.2.1), rud I.Wight (ruddy),

Calluna vulgaris



besom Devon, Corn., basom, bisom bizzom, busom, basam Devon, red-heath Hamp., bent Ches., broom n. York. (see Bramble), moor York., griglan, greglan, grigles, grigling Corn., small-heath Hamp.

Calluna vulgaris, Erica cinerea


Heather, Bell Heather

ling Irel., Scot., and all counties down to Shrop. and e.Anglia; also given to other species found in heathland, such as Empetrum, Carex, Nardus, Schoenus and others; appears to be a collective name, somewhat synonym of "heath"

Caltha palustris


Marsh Marigold

bull-buttercup Essex, bull-flower Devon, bull's eye Dorset, Som., bull-dogs Devon, butter-blob, butter-bleb York., yellow-blob Leic., moll-blob Nhp., Wor., molly-blob Nhp, may-blob w.York., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War., Wilt., water-blobs w.York., n.Devon, Not., Leic., Rutland, Nmp., War., Oxf., water-bleb sw.Linc., Nhp., Wilt., Dorset, water-blubber Glouc. may-blub, may-bubble Wilt., bublicans York., publican York., Oxf. (bleb = blister, bubble), may-flower N.Irel., Londonderry, Donegal, sw.Cumb., Ches., Linc., w.Wor., Shrop., Nhp., War., Glouc., mere-blob Derby, mire-blob Nhp., mare-blob Derby (OE mere "pond", French mare id.), horse-blob s.Not., Leic., Nhp., Wor., Surrey, horse-buttercup w.Som. (by folk etymology, after mare-blob after "mare" understood as female horse instead of "mire"),

great buttercup s.Buck., king-cup Irel., Lanark, Fife, Perth, Hamp., sw.Cumb., York., Nhp., Buck., Nrf., Nhb., War., e.Anglia, Kent, Dorset, Essex, Sussex, Som., Devon, king, king's cob Cumb., Nrf., Berk., Hert., Suff., water-goggles Oxf., marsh-mallow n.York., Devon,

buttercup Devon, butter-flower Wilt., water-buttercup York., Oxf., Surr., Devon, johnny-cranes Nhp., john-georges Buck.  app. 1.2.1 gowan Nhb., Cumb., gollan, golland Caith., Nhb., yellow-gollan Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., sw.Cumb., water-golland, water-gowland s.Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., York., water-gowan Cumb., open-gowan Cumb app. 1.2. crow-cranes Oxf., Nhp., crow-flower Som., marigold n.York  app. 1.4, fire-o'gold n.Buck., wild-fire Kirc., golden-cup w.Som., gilty-cup Wilt., Dorset, Som., gilt-cup Hamp. (see Ranunculus spp.), halcup Hamp., carr-guld Lanc. (attributed to Chrysanthemum segetum; carr = pond), paddock-flower n.Scot. (paddock = frog), meadow-bout Lanc., Ches., Shrop., meadow-bright Nhp., boots Ches., Shrop., yellow-boots Ches., chirms Nhb., crazy s.Lanc., Glouc., Berw., crazy-bet, crazy-betty Wilt, crazy-betsey Little Langford, crazy s.Lanc., Glouc., Berw., crazy-bet, yellow-crazies Wilt. (see Ranunculus)

Calystegia sepium (see also Convolvulus arvensis)


Larger Bindweed

withyvine Berk., Devon, withywine Glouc. Wilt., withwine Glouc. Wilt., withywind Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, w.Dorset (here attributed wrongly to Anagallis arvensis), Som., Devon, withywing Devon, wythywind Devon, Hamp., witheywind Som., withyweed Devon, widtherwine Glouc. Oxf. Wilt., withwind Glouc., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset (all from "vine"; withen = twisted, see also Salix)

wood-bind Suss., great bindweed Ches., lily-bind w.York., sheep-bine Essex, bithy-wine Dorset (for “vine”), devil’s garters Wxf., Pemb., devil’s gut Nrf. ne.Linc., knutsford-devil Ches., creeper Not., jack-run-in-the-country York., robin-run-a-hedge s.Lanc., Ches., Hamp., ground-ivy Devon, seven-year’s love Corn.,

nightcaps Linc., Wilt., granny's nightcap Wilt., old-man's nightcap Sussex, grandmother's nightcap Sussex, lady's nightcap Hamp., Wilt., lady's smock e.York., Nhp., War., Sussex., Devon, Corn., hedge-bells I.Wight, Cumb., bellvine (-), white-smock Devon, white lily sw.Cumb., harvest-lily Surrey, lily Wilt., Hamp., I.Wight (attributed to Fallopia convolvulus), lily-flower Hamp.

Calystegia soldanella

scurvy-grass I.Wight,

Sea Bindweed

Camelina sativa

dutch-flax, cheat Nhp.


Campanula persicifolia

peach-bell Devon,

Peach-leaved Bellflower

Campanula glomerata

dane's blood Cumb.(?), see Dwarf Elder, star Wilt.,

Clustered Bellflower

Campanula latifolia


Giant Bellflower

canterbury-bell Som., wild spinach w.York (the young shoots are boiled and eaten; this species ?)

Campanula medium

gowk's hose Sterling

Canterbury Bell

Campanula pyramidalis

steeple-bells Devon, perrymedoll Suff. (corruption of pyramidalis)

Chimney Bellflower

Campanula rotundifolia



bluebell Ayr., Cumb., ne.York., Derby, s.Not., Hert., Dorset, Devon, blue-bottle Berw., blaver Scot., Twd., Nhb., blawort Scot., Bnff., blaewort Aberd., blue-blauers, blue-blavers Roxb. hare-bell ne.York., w.Ches., Gall., Berw., Rnf., Perth, Aberdeen, heath-bell Nhp., witch-bells Scot., Fife, old-man’s bell ne Scotland, school-bell Wilt., thimble n.Scot., Glouc., Wilt., thimels Lothian, gowk's thimles, gowk's thumbles ne.Scot., Banff, lady's thimble Nhb., e.Anglia, w.Som., children of Israel Wilt. (a small garden variety)




Campanula trachelium

haskwort (-), halswort (-) (Germ. halskraut - Wright 3: 77); Coventry-bells, Coventry-rape War.

Nettle-leaved Bellflower

Cannabis sativa



hemp Scot., England, femble Linc., e.Anglia, s.Cy., Sussex, fimble n.Linc., Essex, Sussex (the female plant), seed-hemp, thistle-hemp n.Cy., Derby, Essex (the female plant), carl-hemp Scot., Cumb., Linc., e.Anglia, s.Cy., Suff., carle-hemp Scot., n.Cy., e.Anglia, s.Cy. (the male plant), spoots Cumb. (stalks used as candles), bunnel Cumb., w.York., Westm. (see bun in Plant parts), gallow-grass Suff., Som., neckweed n.Cy., n.York., e.Anglia, Saint Andre's lace, bastard brother's badge (Wright 2: 544)

Capsella bursa-pastoris


Shepherd's Purse

pick-purse n.Cy., pick-pocket Ches., Not., Nhp., Wor., Buck., Nrf., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Wilt. Som., Devon, pick-packet-to-London w.York., mother's heart Scot., s.Cy., Lanc., Glouc., Midl. (heart-shaped seed pods), pick-your-mother's heart-out War., shepherd's pedler Wilt., shepherd's pocket Buck., shepherd's pouch(es) Hert., I.Wight, rifle-the-ladies' pouches Banff, lady's purses Nhb., e.Anglia, poverty-purse n.Linc., pepper-and-salt Midl., case-weed n.Cy., toy-wort n.Engl., crow-pecks Wilt., ward-seed Devon blind-weed York., naughty-man's plaything War., stone-on-the-wall Linc., bad man('s) oatmeal Durham

Cardamine amara

land-cress Ches., whitsunday Devon

Large Bittercress

Cardamine hirsuta

land-cress w.Ches., War., Hamp., lamb-cress Devon (for " land"), touch-me-not Ches.

Hairy Bittercress

Cardamine pratensis


Lady's Smock

lady's smock Ork., Banff, Dmf., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Linc., Leic., Nhp., Nhb.,War., Wor., Shrop., Radnor, Glouc., Hert., Suff., Surrey, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Som., Devon, Corn., lady-flock Not., lady's glove Nhp., lady's milk-sile York., cuckoo Glouc., Devon "Every plant which has no other title was called a cuckoo", Buck., Essex; cuckoo-flower Ireland, Nhb., York., Ches., Linc., Leic., War., Glouc., Suff., Surrey., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, w.Som., Kent, Devon, water-cuckoo Wilt.. guckoo-buttons Som., cuckoo-pint Wilt., e.Sussex., Leic., cuckoo-pintle Leic., e.Sussex., cuckoo-spit n.Cy. cuckoo's shoes-and-stocking s.Wales.

meadow-flower Cumb., bog-flower n.York., pink, spink(s), bog-spink(s), Nhb., bird’s eye Cumb., York., Shrop., gillyflower, Whitsuntide gillyflower Glouc., Dur., lamb-lakens Cumb., carsons sw.Scot. (French cresson "cress"), meadow-kerses n.York., s.Pemb., laylock Wilt. (lilac-colour), lucy-locket Derby, may-flower Nhb., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Hamp., nightingale-flower Hamp., Essex, pick-folly Nhp., pig's eyes Essex, pigeon's eye n.York., smell-smock Nhp., War., Glouc., Oxf., Buck., Kent, Surrey, Sussex, smick-smock Glouc., Oxf., Hamp., head-wark Cumb., pincushion Nhb. (?), shoes-and-stockings Buck. (?), lady-smock York., apple-pie York., Canterbury bells Nrf. (?),

Carduus (acanthoides or tenuiflorus)

fish-belly Cumb. (whitish under-leaf)

Welted Thistle

Carduus nutans

Queen Anne's thrissel Berw.

Nodding Thistle

Carex divisa


Dived Sedge

hosk Pemb. (Welsh hesg "sedge"), bog-reed Irel.; iron-grass Ches. (attributed to Carex praecox)

Carex echinata

bruckles, brochars-and-stars Scot.

Star Sedge

Carex elata, C. paniculata


Tufted Sedge, Greater Tussock Sedge

hassock Engl., Scot., hassack Linc., Nhp., Pemb., hassick I.Wight, Buchan, Dorset, assock s.Not., hussick Shetl, hossock n.York., hussock Gall., York., ne.Lanc, Nhp., hazzick Berk., huzzick, huzzock s.Ches. > app. 2.7.8 tussock a tuft of coarse, a clump of sedge, hummock-grass w.York.

Carex hirta

goose-grass w.Som. (?)

Hairy Sedge

Carex, collective names



shear-grass Scot., Nhb., w.York., Leic., Midl., War., share-grass Linc., share-tack n.Linc. "a kind of coarse grass; a kind of sedge", hard-grass Staff., sour-grass Ayr., Lanark, moor-palm(s,) moor-paums n.Cy., York., carnation-grass Glouc., w.Sussex, Shrop., Staff., w.Som., chate Nrf., pry Scot., Roxb., Dmfr., Nhb., Cumb., Not., Essex, prye Nhb., prie-grass Not., pink-grass Ches., pink-more Wilt. "a rough grass in water-meadows which cattle refuse to eat" (prob. a Carex sedge)

Carlina acaulis

ground-thistle War., Wor., pod-thistle Nhp. (?)

Stemless Carline Thistle

Carpinus betulus



hurst-beech Nrf., Kent, Sussex (from its growth in hursts - Wright), horse-beech Kent, Suss., Hamp. (for hurst), harber(-tree) e.Anglia, Suff., harbur, arbour Sussex, hornbeam, hard-beam (-), white-beech Ches.

Carum carvi



Castanea sativa

french-nut Devon, rough-nut Ches.,

Sweet Chestnut

Centaurea cyanus



blaver, blaewort Nhb., blue-bottle York., n.Linc., Shrop., Oxf., Wilt., blue-buttons Staff., bluecap Hamp., Nhp., Kent, corn-binks Devon, corn-bottle, corn blue-bottle Nhp., hawdod York., witch-bells n Cy., bachelor’s button York., Derby

Centaurea montana, C. cyanus, C. nigra, Knautia arvensis

loggerhead Glouc., Oxf., n.Buck., Nhp., loggerums Wilt. (from their rounded heads; logger = rounded things)

Scabious, Star-thistle, collective names

Centaurea nigra


Common Knapweed

bund-weed Scot., e.Anglia, Nrf., bun-weed Suff. (see bun in Plant parts), clobweed Hert., cock-head n. Cy., Midl., hard-head Leic., Derby, n.Cy., Midl., Nhb., Cumb., w.York., ne.Lanc., Glouc., Ches., n.Linc., Wor., Shrop. (also attributed to Scabiosa, Lychnis, Ranunculus and other species), horse-hardhead Devon, horse-knobs, horse-knops n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., Nhp. (horse = hoarse)

knob-weed e.York., Nhp., n.Hert., knapweed (-) (knap = knob  app. 2.2), knot-grass Hert., knot-weed Nhp. (also Centaurea cyanus, C. scabiosa), horse-snap Devon, horse-knot Angus, sw.Scot., n.Cy., Nhp., Kent  app. 2.6; button-weed Suss. (from its round, hard seedheads). bachelor’s button Irel., ladies' balls Wilt., lady's cushion, ladies' cushion Kent, hard-iron, hardine Staff., Ches., Lanc. w.Not., iron-weed Nhp., from its hard flowerhead; hurt-sickle Wor. (tough to cut), sweep Derby, War., shaving-brush Shrop., matfellon n.York. (OF mathfeloun, matefelon, French from Manche and Calvados departments marfoulon, madefenou, marfenou, marfran, morflon all appear to be borrowings from English), black-soap Devon, black knapweed (-), tarbottle Oxf., drumstick Nhp,. dromedary Wilt.

Centaurea scabiosa

hard-head Glouc., great horse-knobs York., bachelor’s button Glouc. (see Centaurea nigra).

Greater Knapweed

Centaurium erythraea

braddock e York., earth-gall w.Cy., bloodwort Shrop., gentian Suss., feverfew York., Ches. (see Tanacetum parthenium)

Common centaury

Centranthus ruber


Red Valerian

sweet-Mary Buck., sweet-betsy Kent, delicate-bess, bouncing-bess Devon, drunken-sailor Devon, drunken-willy w.Som., good-neighbours Wilt., w.Som., good-neighbours-hood Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., cat-bed n.Linc., American lilac Devon, German lilac, German laylock n. Linc., ground-laylocks n.Linc., roguery Som., fox's bush Antrim, matrimony e.Kent, red valerian (-), scarlet-lightning Huntingdon, kiss-me, kiss-me-quick Wilt., Devon (?), lady-needlewort, ladies' needlewort Wor. (?)




Cerastium fontanum

mouse-ear Scot., Lanark, York., Shrop., Devon, chicken-weed s.Cumb. (confusion with Common Chickweed)

Common Mouse-ear

Cerastium latifolium

silver-moss War.,

Wide-leaved Mouse-ear

Cerastium tomentosum


Dusty Miller

snow-in-harvest Leic., Wilt., w.Som., snow-on-the-mountain Som., seven-years-in-a-maze Devon, seven-years-in-a-mist Nhp., dusty-miller dusty-milner Linc., dusty-husband Ches.,

Ceterach officinarum

rustyback Cumb.


Ceterach officinarum

brown-back Devon


Chaenorhinum minus

jack-in-the-edge, jack-by-the-edge Berk. (hedge)

Small Toadflax

Chaerophyllum temulum

cow-mumble Suff., cherril York. sheep's parsley Suff.

Rough Chervil

Chamaemelum nobile



camomine Scot., Lanc., Shrop., camoyine, camoine Scot., carmovine e.Lothian, camovine n.Scot., kamumein Shrop., margon, morgan Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight > app. 1.5.1

Chamaepericlymenum suecicum

honey-suckle n.York

Dwarf Cornel

Chamomilla recutita

devil's apple-riennie Stirling, wild camels Devon, maithen w.Wor., n.Wilt. (see Anthemis cotula)

Scented Mayweed

Chelidonium majus


Greater Celandine

kill-wart n.Devon, wart-flower Devon, wart-weed Suff., wart-wort Glouc., Wilt., Shrop., Cumb., n.York., Derby, Ches., Devon, wart-grass Cumb., York., Glouc., Nrf., Suff., n.Essex, War., Linc., Derby, wret-weed Nrf. ("wart"), wart-weed Cumb., e.York., War., Glouc., Cambridge, Nrf., Suff., Wilt., n.Essex (attributed to Euphorbia which also has a latex, and to Gnaphalium uliginosum), yellow-spit Hamp., devil's milk York., witches’ flower Som., saladine Cumb., York., Ches., salladin Cumb., sallender w.York. (French célidoine, from the scient. name Chelidonium, latinized form of Greek khelidon  app., 1.2.2; iodine s.Linc. (its sap stains hands like iodine), kenning-herb Devon, Corn., rit-weed Nrf., jacob's ladder Shrop., saint-john's wort s.Devon (Prob. Hypericum)

Chenopodium album


Fat Hen

dirt-weed Linc., e.Angl., Nrf., Sussex, dirty-dick, dirty-jack Ches., dirty-john w.Ches. (grows on dung-hills or heaps of dirt), bacon-weed Dorset “because it denotes rich and fat land”, fat-hen N.Cy., Nhb., Nrf., Cumb., York., Ches., Not., Linc., Leic., Hamp. (here attributed to Chrysanthemum segetum), Nhp., Hrf., Bdf., e.Anglia, Suff., Surrey, Sussex, lamb-tongue, lamb's tongue Ches., Shrop., w.Som., lamb-suckling n.Cy., lamb's quarters Irel., n.Cy., I.Wight, mutton-chops Dorset (the young tops or shoots), also attributed to Galium aparine; john-o'neel, johnny-o'neel Shrop., goosefoot (transl. of Chenopodium), nightshade Kent (?)




Chenopodium album, Ch. bonus-henricus, Atriplex hortensis

midden-mylies n.Scot. (grows on middens or dunghills), miles Irel., Scot., Ayr., Lanark, Lothian, Rxb., Nhb., Cumb., mails Scot., meals, meols Cumb., milds N.Irel., meldweed Scot. (Norw. dial. melde, meldestock "Chenopodium album", Shetl. melda "weeds"

goosefoot, orache, collective names

Chenopodium bonus-henricus


Good King Henry

wild spinach Midl., Bdf. (attributed to Ch. album), Hamp., I.Wight, fat-hen n.York., Ches., Berk., Suff., Kent., Surrey (see Chenopodium album), mercury n.Cy., Cumb., Westm., e.York., mercury-dock Renfrew, marquery Linc., margery Linc., shoemaker's heel(s) Shrop., Radnor, cobbler's head, cobbler's head Flint, cobbler's heel Flint, good-king-Harry, -Henri Nhb., Cumb., good-neighbours-hood Wilt., Roman-plant n.Lanc., flowery-docken Nhb. (?)

Chrysanthemum segetum


Corn Marigold

gold Midl., Not., sw.Linc., Nhp., Bdf., s.Cy., Scot., goold Scot., gould Hert., goud Not., sw.Linc., goul Wor., Buck., Bdf., Sussex, gole e.Anglia, Suff., Essex, gool Scot., Cumb., Not., Linc., Nhp., Wor., Buck., Bdf., Hert., e.Anglia, Sussex, goel e.Anglia, Suff., Essex, gowle, gull Cumb. guild(e), guile, gule Scot., gueel Aberdeen, geal-gowan, gilgowan Irel., gill-gowan n.Irel., Ulster, gowlan(d), gollan, golland goulan, gollin n.Cy., Nhb., n.York, Lanc., yellow-gold s.Cumb., yellow-gollan Caith., yellow-moon(s) War., Wor., Dorset, yellow-oxeye n.York., sun-flower Nhp.

 marigold Irel., York., Ches., Shrop., Kent, marygold n.York., w.Ches., Kent, field-marigold Shrop., merrigo Kent, Mary-gowlan Nhb., marigoldins Antrim, wild marigold Antrim, corn-marigold Cumb. (for ma  app. 1.4), golden-pride Perth.

botham, bothem, bothan Corn., bozzom, yellow-bozzum I. Wight, bottan Hamp., billy-button York., botherum Ches., Dorset, botherem Dorset, budland Nrf., butter-daisy Dorset, yellow-bottle n.York., Kent, yellow bossle Berk., manelet Scot., thunder-daisy Som., Devon, measle-flower Wilt., tansy Glouc. (see Tanacetum vulgare) moon Nhp. (see Leucanthemum vulgare app. 2.11

Chrysanthemum sp.

winter daisy Devon "a small Chrysanthemum", winter-geranium Devon


Chrysocoma linosyris

may-gowlin Westm.


Chrysoplenium oppositifolium

creeping-jenny Sussex

Alternate-leaved Golden Saxifrage

Cicer arietinum

caravanses, caravazas Kent (Spanish garbanzos)

Haricot bean

Cichorium intybus

bunks e.Anglia.


Cicuta virosa



hemlock Scot., Nhb., Dur., York., Ches., Not., Linc., e.Anglia, homleck, homlick, whumlick Nhb., humleek Nhb., sw.Linc., humlick n.Cy., Nhb., humly Rxb., humlock Scot., Frf., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., s.Not., Linc., e.Anglia, humblock s.Not., humloch, hummlock Rxb., humluck n.York. [OE hymlic, hemlic, hymlict(e)]; prob. a collective name for Umbelliferae; in Lanark "by the common people nearly all the Umbellate plants are called hemlock" (in Wright), hever Hrf.

Circaea lutetiana

dragon's root Down (?)

Enchanter's Nightshade

Cirsium arvense


Creeping Thistle

distel, deistle s.Pemb., disle Pemb., Som., Devon, Corn., dissel, diesel Corn., dysel, disell, dickle Devon, dicel, dishel Devon, Corn., dashel(l) Som., Devon, dashle w.Som., nw.Devon, dassel, dastel, dazzle Devon, thistle Scot., England, thizzle I.Wight, sissel Sussex, teasel (-) (Germ. distel).

pig-leaves n.Cy., York.  app. 2.9.1; hard-thistle e.Angl., corn-thistle Cumb., Antrim, creeping-thistle (on account of its rhizomes), cursed-thistle Staff., kuckles Irel. (its seedheads) > app. 2.3; wool Linc. (thistle down), plume-thistle (-), pixy Devon "down of thistles when floating in the air", dodger Shrop.

Cirsium eriophorum

friar's crown-thistle Glouc., pincushion War. (head of large thistle)

Woolly Thistle

Cirsium palustre

bog-thrissle Nhb., moss-thistle Gall., water-thistle Cumb., red-thistle York.

Marsh Thistle

Cirsium vulgare


Spear Thistle

bur-thistle Ayres., Cumb., York., nw.Derby, boar-thistle Ches., sw.Linc., Staff., Wor., Shrop., Berw., Hert., e.Anglia, Kent, Hamp., Som., boar-distle w.Som., bo-fissle Ches., bore-thistle Kent, bo-thistle Ches., bow-fistle Cumb., bull-thistle n.Irel., Dorset, w.Som., bell-thistle York., War., thistle-burr w.York. (thistle head), bird-thistle Wor. (for burr), thistle-top Dmf. (the downy head), horse-thristle Gall., quat-vessel Hamp. (also C. pratense), guckoo-buttons w.Som., cuckoo-buttons w.Som., n.Devon, cheese Dmf. (the receptacle)

Cistus ladanifer

day-flower n.Linc.

Crimson Spot Rockrose, Bog Cistus

Citrus aurantium

oranger Scot., origin Shetl.


Cladium mariscus


Great Fen-sedge

cut-grass, cut-sedge, cut-throat w.York. (also attributed to Glyceria maxima and Eriophorum angustifolium; Cladium is the plant with sharp leaves ), sword-gras Ches., Linc. "a coarse sedge"

Clematis vitalba


Traveller's Joy

bithy-wine Wilt., Dorset, bellywind Hamp. (for “vine”), bethwine Glouc., Sussex, Hamp., bedwine Berk., Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, bedwind War., Glouc., Wilt. (to wind), by-the-wind Wilt., withywind, willow-wind, Glouc. (see Calystegia sepium), love, love-bind, bullbird, bethwin, bindwith (-), bull-bine Hert., Hamp. (see also Convolvulus), skipping-ropes Wilt.

climbers Kent, devil’s guts Wilt., devil's cut Devon, hag-ropes Som., tuzzy-muzzy Glouc. (also "ragged, dishevelled; from the appearance of its inflorescence), lady’s bower Glouc., Virgin's bower Irel., War., beggar-bushes Bucks.

grey-beard Wilt., Hamp., Devon, granfer’s-beard Wilt., old-man Devon, Sussex, dad's whiskers Wilt., old man’s woozard s.Buck., old man's beard Gall., Nhp., War., Glouc., Oxf., Buck., Hert., Huntingdon, Suff., Kent, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., old-man's woozard s.Buck., silver-bush Jersey, snow-in-summer Wilt., snow-in-harvest Nhp., maid('s)-hair Buck., honey-stick, honesty Lakeland, w.York. War., Wor., Hrf., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, maiden's honesty Wilt., hedge-feathers w.York., robinhood's feather, -fetter Cumb.

traveller’s joy (so called because the traveller knows he is approaching a village when he sees the hedges covered with this plant).

smoking-cane Hert., Devon, smoke cane Devon, smoke weed (-), tombacca Suss. "tobacco", boy’s-bacca Sussex. ("tobacco", so called because boys cut the small wood pieces to smoke), crocodile Kent (see Ilex)

Cnicus benedictus

Virgin-Mary's thistle Suff., Hamp. (see Milk Thistle)

Blessed Thistle, Thistle (Holy)

Cochlearia officinalis

scrooby-grass Scot., n.Cy., w.York, scurvy-grass, bad man('s) oatmeal Durham

Common Scurvy-grass

Cocos nucifera

monkey-nut e.Suff.


Colchicum autumnale


Autumn Crocus

wild crocus Dorset, meadow-crocus York., michaelmas-crocus Wilt., kite-leg e.Kent, naked-boy Hrf., Nrf., Wilt., star-naked boys Nrf. (the flowering plant has no leaves), ramson n.York. (by confusion, see Allium ursinum).

Conium maculatum



bad man(‘s) oatmeal Nhb., Durham, York., dead-man's oatmeal Nhb., break-your-mothers’s-head Dorset, hech-how Scot. (N.Irel. ha-ho for Anthriscus sylvestris), bunk Nrf., Suff., koush Lanc., Linc. (see Umbelliferae)

Conopodium majus

kipper-nut Devon, gourlock Gall. (the root)


Consolida regalis

lark-heels Nhp. (prob. a transl. of French pied-d'alouette), jacob's ladder Devon

Forking Larkspur

Convallaria majalis


Lily of the Valley

valley Buck., Bdf. (the leaves; on account of the channeled leaves; valley is also a small channel), lily-and-valleys Buck., Bdf., lily-of-the-valley (-), may-lily w.Som.

Convolvulus arvensis, Calystegia sepium


Bindweed, Larger Bindweed

bell-bind Cumb., Nrf., Essex, Suff., bell-wind Berw., Surrey, bind n.Linc., e.Anglia, bindweed Scot. (attributed to Senecio jacobae), n.Cy., York., Linc., Suff., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., Ches., Surrey, corn-bind, corn-bin(e) n.Cy., York., s.Not., Linc., Nhp., War., Oxf., Berw., corn-bindweed n.York., benweed Scot.: Ayr., N.Irel.: Donegal, bunwede (attributed to Senecio jacobae), beswin(d) Hamp., bethwine Glouc., Midl., Hamp., bearbind Hrf., Berw., Hert., York., Wor., Shrop., Kent, Midl., Surrey, bearbine Kent, Ches., Wor., Hrf., barbine Shrop., bedwine War., Glouc., Hamp., lily-bind w.York., wire-weed Surrey, willow-wind Wilt., way-wind Nhb. (winding), withwind (see Calystegia sepium)  app. 3.7; wheat-line Hert.

dralyer Corn. (also any trailing plant or weed) hell-weed York., hedge-bells I.Wight, hedge-lily Hamp., I.Wight, devil's guts Nhp., s.Not., Linc., I.Wight, Bdf., Shrop., Leic., billy-clipper Shrop., old man’s nightcap Surrey, granny's nightcap Wilt., lap-love Teviot, n.Cy.

Coriandrum sativum

col Essex, caxey Devon (see Umbelliferae, keckx)


Cornus sanguinea



cat-tree Shrop., cat-wood s.Buck., dog-tree Oxf., dog-wood War., Wilt., dog-timber w.Som., Dorset, Devon, gatteridge e.Anglia, Suff., s.Cy., gatter-tree Linc., Teviot, gatter-bush e.Anglia (see Rubus fruticosus and Euonymus europaeus), cornalee Ches. (French cornouiller), skewerwood Shrop., Hert., Buck. (see Euonymus europaeus), foul-rice Rutland

Coronopus squamatus

star-of-the-earth e.Sussex, hog-grass War., sow-grass n.York.,


Corydalis lutea

bird-in-a-bush Nhp., canary n.Linc., lady's pincushion Devon, mother-of-thousands Devon

Yellow Corydalis

Corylus avellana



hazel Irel, Scot., Cumb., York., Lanc., Derby, Linc., Nhp., Buck., Essex, Devon (here attributed erron. to the hawthorn berry), hazel, hazl Devon (here attributed to Crataegus laevigata), hazle n.Cy., n.York., nw.Devon, hezel, hasle w.York., hazzel nw.Devon, n.Linc., heusel Essex, hezal n.Lanc., hezzel Cumb., Lanc., sw.Linc., hezzle Nhb., York., ne.Lanc. hizzel Cumb., hizzl Devon, hazzy-tree, azzy-tree Buck. (here attributed to Crataegus laevigata), halse Irel. Som., Devon, alls, alse Devon, hawlse Wexf., hall, hallnut Som., Corn., haul Som., nuthall, nuttal nuttall-bush, Devon, Corn., nuthall, nuthalse nw.Devon, nuttol se.Devon, e.Corn., alsen-wood Devon: Dartmoor, alsen-ood s.Devon, halse-bush, halse-nut Devon (halse-bush also attributed to Alnus glutinosa, and halse to Ulmus glabra app. 1.12

filbeard Ches., Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., I.Wight, filbeard se.Wor., Oxf. filberd Leic., Nhp., fillyard Shrop., vilburd I.Wight [(French noix de filbert, "a nut ripe about St Philibert's day (20 August)" (Oxf. dict.)]

nut-tree Nhp., nuttery Suff., hedge-nuts Devon, wood-nut n.York., bong-nut Suff. (a long hazelnut), victor-nut Corn., cobble-de-cut-nuts Corn.

The catkins: lambkins Wilt., lamb-tails, lamb's tails Nhb., Lakel., York., Not., Linc., War., Shrop., Buck., Cumb., Essex, Wilt., w.Som., Devon, Corn. (also of Salix caprea), cat-tail, cat's-tails w.York., Nhp.,War., Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., w.Som., Devon, cats-and-kittens War., Wor., cat-o'nine-tails Devon, gallings Hert., rag, hazel-rag York., nut-rags Ches.

Cotyledon umbilicus



penny-cake(s) s.Pemb., s.Devon, Corn., pancake-plant Devon, penny-caps Som., penny-hat(s) Devon, Devon, penny-cod Corn., penny-grass Fermanagh, penny-pies Sussex, Devon, Corn., penny-plates Devon, penny-wall I.Man, money-pennies Devon, navel-wort n.York., Leic., Wor., lady's navel w.Som., nipple-wort Sussex, maid-in-the-mist s. Scot., jack-in-the-bush Rxb., lovers' links Rxb., prince's feather w.York., corn-leaves Wor. (its leaves are applied to corns and warts), cut-finger w.War., bachelor’s button Devon, milk-the-cows Corn.

Crambe maritima

cole s.Cy., Sussex

Sea Kale

Crataegus laevigata


Midland Hawthorn

aag, aig, haag, haig w.York., ag Berk., Sussex, agg Buck., aga Kent, Hamp., Wilt., haga I.Wight, hagga Berk., aght Devon ague, hoeg Ches., heag w.York., Ches., haghe n.Cy., w.York., Derby, hague w.York., Lanc., Ches., haig n.York., Lanc., Ches., haw Selk., Dmf., haulm Kent; haw-berry Edinb., haw-buss Dmf., haw-gaw Surrey, haw-stones Gall. (the fruit), haw-tree Ayr., Lanark, Lothian, Dmf., Nhb., Glouc., hog-haws s.Cy., Hamp., hogawes Surrey, Sussex, aves Dorset, hoggan Corn., hog-gazels, hog-gosses Sussex, hogails, hogils I.Wight, haggil Hamp., haggle Ches., Hamp., I.Wight., Wilt., Dorset, Devon, Corn., hagal I.Wight, haggel, hagl, awgl, orgl Corn., aggle Devon, agle Ches., Corn., agald Wilt., haigle n.Devon, hayel, hail Dorset, eggle-berry, aggle-berry nw.Devon, eglet, agglet, aglet Devon, Corn., eaglet, heglet, heglut, eglet-blossom Devon, eagles, eggle-berry Ches., Devon, eggar w.Midl., aglet Dev., Cor., bird-eagles Ches., agogs Berk, agarves Sussex, agasses, hagasses Sussex, Hamp., hag-bush, hag-tree w.York., hag-thorn Som., Dev. hag(berry) n.Cy., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Berk., Buck., Hert., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Som., Devon, hag-blossoms w.York, Lanc. (French aigu "pointed", Italian aguglia "needle" and haggle "to hack, mangle", this bush being spiny).

pig-berry Wilt., pig-haw e.Cy., Hamp., Wilt., Som., pig-hau Hamp., peg-haw, peggal(l), peggle Wilt., pegall e.Cy., pigall e&w.Cy., Wilt., pigaul Hamp., pigs-hole Som.  app. 2.9.1; pitcher s.Pemb., pixy-pear Som., Dorset, peck-haw Not. From a roo pi- "pointed"  app. 2.9.2

thorn Scot., York., Lanc., thorn-berries, thorn-burs Ches., Nrf., quick-thorn York., Lanc., quick-wood n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., ne.Lanc., Ches., n.Linc., wicken n.York., holy-thorn War.

 hip-haws Lakel., hippety-haw Shrop. (fruit), hippety-haw tree Shrop., heathenberry Ches., johnny-magory, johnny-macgorey Dublin, Wicklow, Wxf.  1.2.2.

cuckoo's beads Shrop., cuckoo-tree Wilt., Sussex, ne.Kent, Leic., may-flower Cumb., may-fruits York., may-bread-and-cheese War. (leaves and buds), may-bush e.Anglia, Nrf., e.Suff., Hamp., w.Som., may-tree n.Linc., Nrf. may Lanark, w.York., War., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Hert., e.Anglia, Nrf., Cumb., Suff., n.Essex, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Corn., may-bough Sussex, Hamp. (only the blossoms).

The berries: cat-haws N.Cy., Nhb., Nhp., Cumb., Durham, Cumb., Westm., York., Linc., kaat-auz e.York., katars w.York., kat-hos Westm., kato-o tree w.York. (the fruits), bull-haws n.Cy., Nhb. (the double-stoned fruit), bull-haa Nhb. (when of large size), butter-haws Nrf.

law e.Anglia, lawyer Ches., Hrf., Glouc. Brk., e.Anglia, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, I.Wight, laayer Brk., layur I.Wight, lawer Nrf., layer e.Angl., Nrf., lay-yer Brk.

roddin n.Scot. (see Sorbus aucuparia), god's meat w.York., cheese-and-bread Nhb., w.York. bread-and-cheese N Irel., Lakel., Oxf., Kent, England widespread (the budding leaves eaten by children), "whitethorn" is a translation of French aubépine thought to mean "white-spine" but in reality the name means "spine tree" ("arbe épine"; locally arbre is pronounced "arbe"). The spines of hawthorns are black. wind-bibber Kent (?) this is the name of the Kestrel!

Crepis paludosa

marsh-succory w.York., hawk's-beard (-)

Marsh Hawk's-beard

Crithmum maritimum


Rock Samphire

semper e.York., samper, sampur I.Wight, camphire Cumb. (misprint ?), samphire (also attributed to Salicornia europaea), > Saint-Pierre, rock-samphire, rock-semper York., Nhb. (here attributed to Salicornia herbacea), pasper Scot. (French perce-pierre)

Crocus sativus

saverney Nhb. (French saffrané)


Crocus vernus

naked-boy Ches. (see Colchicum autumnale)

Spring Crocus

Cruciata laevipes

cross-wort n.York., may-wort (-), maiden-hair Nhb.,


Cryptogramma crispa

rock-brake Nhb., parsley-fern Devon

Parsley Fern

Cucumis sativa var.



cumber York., Not., cowcunger Staff., conger Linc., Nhp., War., Wor., cunger Linc., War., congoe, conker Nhp. app. 2.4; cucumber-vine

Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo

pumpin Kent, pumpion Lanc., Kent,


Cucurbita sp.

squash Glouc. (not a variety of pear, but the pear-shaped squash; a name of Amerindian origin)





devil's guts Cumb., Glouc., War., Shrop., Lanark, Sussex, n.Buck., Hamp., I.Wight, devil's thread Kent, devil's net w.Kent, hell-weed Nhp., Berk., Bdf., Hert., Cumb., Nhp., Lanark, n.Buck., Kent, Sussex, hell-bind, hell-seed Hert., red-tangle Nrf., hair-weed Bdf., Hert., Nrf., maid('s)-hair I.Wight, fairy-hair Jersey, scald Cumb., clover-dodder Hert. (for dodder see  app. 3.1), epiphany Corn. (from the scient. name of Cuscuta epithymum), beggar-weed Dorset, Bdf., Wilt.

Cyclamen purpurascens

bleeding-nun Wxf.,


Cydonum cotoneum

quincey Rutland, Devon


Cymbalaria muralis


Ivy-leaved Toadflax

creeping-jenny Devon, Dorset, Wilt., creeping-seefer Gall., roving-jenny I.Wight, Devon, wandering-jew n.Cy., Westm., Agl., Sussex, wandering-sailor Scot., Cumb., Som., Devon (creeps on walls), travelling-sailor Hamp., rambling-sailor Cumb., Lanc., mother-of-thousands Scot., n.Cy., Cumb., e.York., Ches., Derby, Wor., Kent, Wilt., Dorset, So., Devon, Corn., mother-of-millions Hert., e.Suss., Devon, Corn., thousand-flowers Ches., lavender-snip Hamp., Oxford-weed Oxf., Berk., pedlar's basket Cumb., Westm., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Som., rabbit Devon, aaron’s beard Edinb. (a name attributed to several species)

Cynara scolymus

worry-baldie Gall. (appears to be a translation of (arti)choke "worry" !


Cynoglossum officinale

rose-noble Ches., Ulster  app. 2.2; gipsy-flower Glouc., scald-head Suff.,

Hound's Tongue

Cynosurus cristatus


Crested Dog's-tail

traneen(grass) Irel., thraneen Down, Donegal, Wexf., Kerry, trawneen, thrauneen n.Irel. (traneen is also a rush, straw or anything worthless), bent Cumb., s.Berw., bent-grass Cumb., s.Berw. (a collective name for grasses), kemp Caith. (kemps = coarse fibres; see also Plantago lanceolata), dog-tail grass Staff., Hert., Cumb., Suff., Suss., dog's grass e.Anglia, w.York., Sussex, Hamp., golden-grass Lanark, scratch-grass Berk., wimble-straw Shrop., hendon-bent Midl., pipe-bent Selk. (?)




Cypripedium calceolus

calcalary Devon (from the scient. name), lady's boots Devon, finger-and-thumbs, boots-and-shoes Devon, lady's slipper Wilt., War.

Lady's Slipper Orchid

Cyrtanthus speciosus

jersey-lily w.Som.,


Cytisus scoparius

green-broom Hert., besom Som., Devon (see Calluna vulgaris)


Daboecia cantabrica

french-heath w.Irel.

St Dabeoc's Heath

Dactylis glomerata



cock's foot, cock's foot grass Scotland, n. York., Nrf., cock-spire Cumb., dog-foot Derby, fox-foot Nhb., cow's grass Nrf., cow-grass e.Anglia, orchard-grass w.Som., orchis-grass Glouc., rough-girse Banff, sticky-grass se.Scot., n.Cy., Nhb. (?)

Dactylorhiza maialis

balderry, baldberry, bull-bags Scot., dodjell-reepan Gall., meadow-rocket Dmf.

Broad-leaved Marsh Orchid

Dactylorhiza sambucina,

Orchis mascula

Elder-flowered Orchid,

Early Purple Orchid

lord-and-ladies Lakel., York., Lanc. Ches., Staff., Derby, Linc., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Buck., Hert., Huntingdon, e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., e.Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, w.Som., Devon, Corn., lord-and-ladies-fingers War., ladies-and-gentlemen Nhp., Shrop., Kent, Wilt., gentlemen-and-ladies Oxf., gentlemen('s)-and-ladies' fingers Wilt., lady-fingers Wilt., Kent., Glouc., lady-keys, lady-lords Kent, lady's smock Hamp., adam-and-eve York., Linc., Leic., Som., kings-and-queens Dur., n.Linc.,  silly-lovers Som., devil's ladies-and-gentlemen Denbigh, devil's men-and-women Shrop., Suss. cows-and-calves Lakel., e.York., Not., n.Linc., sw.Linc., Nhp., War., s.Wor., Shrop., Buck., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, bulls-and-cows, n.Cy., Nhb., York., ne. Lanc., n.Linc., bulls-and-wheys Westm., n.York. cow-and-calf s.Not., Glouc., cows-and-kies n.York. stallions, stallions-and-mares York., Linc. There seems to have been considerable confusion in the attribution of orchids and cuckoo-pint's names. Some of the preceeding names have been attributed to the Cuckoo-pint; they probably refer to the orchids, especially the Elder-flowered Orchid, on account of its flower spikes being either pink or yellow, both colour being found on the same location. See also Orchis mascula Early Purple Orchid.


Dactylorhiza maculata


Heath Spotted Orchid

scab-gowks Dur., nightcaps Derby, old-woman's pincushion Wilt., poor man's blood Kent, hen Nhb., ring-finger Buck., queen's fingers War., spree-sprinkle Ches. (spree = "spreckled" speckled), skeat-legs Kent, kite-leg, kite's leg Kent, kite-pan Wilt. (also Orchis mascula), dandy-goshen, dandy-goslings Wilt. (also O. morio), giddy-gander I.Wight, Dorset, goosey-gander Dorset, goosey-ganders Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., Dorset, gosling Wilt., gandigoslings, dandygoslings Wilt. (also for Orchis mascula)

Daphne laureola


Spurge Laurel

wood-laurel Glouc., Buck., Hamp., I.Wight, laurel-wood Glouc., spurging-laurel Nhb., spurge-laurel (-), fox-poison Linc.,

Daphne mezereum



mazalium Buck., mazell Hamp., mezereon Ches., mysterious-plant Derby (perhaps a corruption of mezereon), paradise-plant Glouc., Som., red-berry laurel w.York., daffany Devon (from the scient. name), daffodil York. (by contamination of Daphne), spurge-flax (-)

Daucus carota


Wild Carrot

mirrot Sutherland, Ross., mirran, meeran Scot.: Aberd., Buchan (Sw. morot "carrot", Dan. morod "wild carrot), bird’s nest York., Wilt., Scotland, War. (the inflorescence), crow's nest Bdf., curran-petris w.Scot., keggas, kegge, kai-yer Corn. (see Umbelliferae: kecks), fiddle n.Linc. (see Scrophularia auriculata)

Delphinium elatum

devil's nightcap Hamp.

Candle Larkspur

Dendrathema (cultivated hybrids)

farewell-summer Wales, kiss-antrum Devon (corruption of Chrysanthemum), mums


Deschampsia cespitosa


Tufted Hair-grass

buff-fronts Nhb., n.Cy., bull-front Cumb., bull's forehead n.Cy., e.York., Som., w.York., bull’s brows Som., bull-poll Glouc., Wilt., bull-pates Shrop., Herf., Glouc., bull-peats Nub., s.Wor., Glouc., bull-tussock Derby  app. 2.1, bent-grass, benton pry sw.Cumb., hassocks Ches. (see Carex), spear-grass Suff., spink Scot., Fife, Edinb., Nhb., nation-grass Wilt. (a noxious weed, tough to mow; nation is an expletive), iron-grass Shrop. sniggle, sniggle-grass, sniggle-bogs Shrop., snizzle appears to be a misreading (attributed to Eriophorum vaginatum with the precision "the caespitose root-leaves"), carnation-grass Glouc. (see Carex)

Dianthus barbatus


Sweet William

sweet-willy Scot., Kent, tuffy n.Linc., lady's tuft e&w.York., bloomy-down Som., London-pride e.York., Nhp., London-tuft n.Linc., Nhp., Nrf., Suff., London-bobs Lakel., Lanc.,

Dianthus caryophyllus


Clove Pink

gillofer Shrop., Glouc., gil'offer Devon, jillofer, gilawfer w.Som., jilloffer Dorset, gilafer Nhp., gillafer I.Wight, jillafer Devon, gillifer n.York., Som., gilliver Scot., Cumb., n&w.York., Lanc., Ches., Staff., Flint, Derby, Not., sw.Linc., Leic., War., gillyfer York., Nhp., gillyver Nhp., jilliver York., Lanc., sweet-gilliver York., Staff., gillyvor s.Ches., gilver I.Man, gillyflower England, Scot., gillieflower Glouc., Som., gillyflower-grass, julyflower-grass Wilt. jilliflower Dorset, jillyflower se.Wor., gilliflower Lanark, w.York., Ches., Staff., Berk., Som., gillivlower Som., gellyflower Scot., jellyflower Ayr., Devon, Corn., gilloflower Dur., also attributed to other species (OF gilofre). The forms ending in -flower are due to pop. etym.  (Wright)

whitsun-gilliflower Som., may-pink Devon, pinkie Scot., Rnf., Lanark, pitman's pink n.Cy., french-pink w.Som., indian-pink Glouc. (from its usual colour, not from pinken "prick", this plant is not spiny or prickly), clow(e) Rnf., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. [French clou (de girofle)] clove-gilawfer Som., clove-pink (-), ley Lanc., crownation Sussex, Devon, carnation

Dianthus chinensis

indian-pink Som., Devon

Chinese Pink

Dianthus deltoides

wild pink n.Cy, Nhb., Berk., s.Scot.

Maiden Pink

Dianthus gratianopolitanus

cliff-pink Som.

Cheddar Pink

Dicentra spectabilis


Bleeding Heart

sweet-betsies w.Som., dutchman's breeches Devon, locks-and-keysWilt., loak's-n-kaiz w.Som., bleeding-heart Westm., w.Wor. Glouc., love-lies-bleeding deutsa, diletrus, dialetrus Devon, seal-flower (-), rabbit's flower Wilt., duck's bill w.Som., Devon

Digitalis purpurea



flop nw.Devon, flop-poppy, flop-top Devon, flop-a-dock Wilt., Devon, fropadock, flop-dock Devon, flobber-dock Devon, flop-docken n.York., goose-flops Devon, goosey-vlops War., Devon, cow-flop w.Som.

cow-pops, green-poppies Corn., pop-dock Som., Corn., pop-glove Corn., poppers Hamp., peppes Devon, poppy, popy-docks York., Nhp., War., Buck., Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn.

fox-and-leaves Donegal, foxter-leaves Selk., fox-docken n.York., fox-fingers n&e.York., fox-glove w.York., white foxglove Lanc., folk's glove Nhb., Wilt., foxes' gloves Oxf., fairy-petticoats Ches., fairy-cap Irel., fairy-fingers Dur., Cumb., n.York, Fermanagh, fairy-glove Irel., lady's glove Shrop., fairy-weed Irel.

finger w.Som., lady-fingers Antrim, w.Som., Shrop., Wor., Nhb., Devon, lady-fingers e.Cy., Lanark, Rutland, Linc., York., Dorset, Hert., Nhp., Linc., e.Lanc., e&w.York., Hamp., Wilt., Sussex, Huntingdon, lady-finger grass Hert., fingers-and-thumbs, god's fingers-and-thumb, yellow fingers-and-thumbs Dorset (also attributed to Fumaria officinalis, Lotus corniculatus and other flowers), lady's glove Nhp., Wilt., king's finger Buck., king's finger grass Midl., devil's fingers Som., devil's five-fingers Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, dead-man's fingers Hamp., finger-and-toe Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, finger-and-thumbs Wilt. Rutl., Oxf., Hert., Hamp., Dorset, Devon, yellow fingers-and-thumbs Som., ladies fingers-and-thumbs Wilt., god's fingers-and-thumbs Dorset, god's thumbs-and-fingers Hamp., lady's-boots Devon, lady's shoes Hamp., boots-and-shoes Sussex, Devon, shoe-and-sock e.Kent, shoes-and-stockings Buck., s.Cy., Sussex, Hamp., Devon, stockings-and-shoes Devon, lady's shoes-and-stockings Buck., Kent, cuckoo's stockings Shrop., Sussex, lady's slipper Wilt., Hert., w.York., grandmother's slippers Hamp., grandmother's nightcap Sussex, granny's nightcap Buck.  (some of the preceeding names probably apply to the Lady's Slipper  Orchid of which they are descriptive).

finger-root Sussex, finger-stall War., thimble Waterford, lady's thimble Nrf., Nhb., witch('s) thimble s.Scot., Ayr., Twd., Dmf., Nhb., n.Cy. (here attributed to Centaurea cyanus),

hair-bell Irel. (for hare-) rabbit's flower Devon, dragon's mouth, lion's mouth, tiger's mouth Sussex, cowslip Devon, cooslop n.Linc. (= cow's lip), snoxun Glouc., rapper Pembroke, long-purple w.Som., floss-docken Ork., kiss-me-quick-and-go Som., pounds-of-sugar Shrop. "the seeds", snap-dragon Devon, snauper Glouc.

Dioscora spp.



yam Scot., Edinb., yaam Shetl. (attributed to "potato")

Diplotaxis muralis

wall-rocket (-), stink-weed Kent

Annual Wall Rocket

Dipsacus fullonum


Wild Teasel

brushes, clothes-brush Linc., Wilt., comb-and-brush Wilt., clothier' brush Cumb: Langwathby, brush-and-comb, barber’s brush Wilt. (from its prickly heads), gipsy's-combs York., sweep's-brushes Shrop., Devon, sweep w.York., Shrop. chimney-sweeps Lanc., Ches., s.Not. (the last three also attributed to Luzula), buy-a-broom Ches., adam’s flannel Leic., devil's mint e.Suff. (?)

Drosera rotundifolia


Common Sundew

red-rot Edinb., n.Cy., youth-wort Edinb., moor-gloom w.York., moor-grass Cumb., York., king-of-the-wood Antrim (?) (this species does not grow in woods)

Dryas octopetala

wild betony Clare

Mountain Aven

Dryopteris cristata

darsham-fern Nrf.

Crested Buckler Fern

Dryopteris filix-mas


Male Fern

Saint-John's hands Rutland, fern-brackins Cumb., basket-fern Hamp., Corn., mekkin Lakel., Cumb., Westm. ? (see Iris pseudacorus), snake's ladder Leic.

Echium vulgare


Viper's Bugloss

blue-bottle Nrf., iron-weed Bdf., -tail Hert., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, wild borage, wild borage-root Surr., snake-flower I.Wight, viper's grass I.Wight (French vipérine), bugles Hamp.

Elatine alsinastrum

thyme-weed Linc. (prob. a name for Elodea canadensis)


Eleocharis palustris

water-seave w.York., paint-brush Wilt., Dorset,

Common Spike-rush

Elitrygia repens


Common Couch

couch(grass) England (widespread), York., Ches., Derby, War., Glouc., Berw., Bedf., Suff., Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Wilt. (also applied to other grasses), cooch Derby., Glouc., Kent, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, kootch Devon, cough-grass Irel., scoutch Hrf., scutch Irel., Ches., War., Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Glouc., Oxf., skutch Ches., Oxf., quitch, quitch-grass Irel., Not., Leic., Nhp., War., Glamorgan, Glouc., Oxf., e.Anglia, Som., quitch, squitch, squitch-grass Ches., Staff., Rutland, Leic., Nhp., War.., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Buck., Irel., scuitch Shrop., squatch s.Ches., switch, w.York., twike, twyke Linc., twitch, twitch-grass Lakel., Cumb., Westm., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Midl., Derby, Not., Linc., Leic., Nhp., War., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Bdf., Hert., e.Anglia, Cumb., Suff., Essex, Som. quick n.Cy., Lakel., Cumb., Westm., York., n.Linc., n.Lanc., Wor., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., quicken, quicken-grass N.Irel., Scot., Aberd., Perth., Dmf., Gall., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., York., War., ket s.Scot. (E.Fries. kwäck, Germ. quecke, Germ: Pfalz quack, Dutch kweek, AS cwice (ketty = matted, bound together, to couch = to lie down; also attributed to other grasses)

strap-grass Devon, sproil Devon (so called in consequence of the creeping nature of its root - Wright), huff-cap Hrf., Som. (also: a mound of coarse grass), spear-grass e.Angl., Suff., spear-bed e.Anglia, Suff., Corn., dog's grass Cumb., dog-grass Ches., fanny-grass Nhb, whigga Shetl., yawl Scilly I., windle-straw Scot. (also Cynosurus cristatus); windle is a long stalk of gras or corn; wreck Scot., m.Loth., Rxb., Nhb. (also anything worthless; see wrack sea alga); scrile w.Cy., scoil Corn., skally-grass Irel., lonnachs, nonachies Scot., felt Scot., wild bennet Hert. (= bent), sheep's sowruck Scot., gye Lanc., Suff. (see Ranunculus arvensis), white couch Wilt. = prob. Holcus lanatus

Elodea canadensis


Canadian Pondweed

cat-tail Fermanagh, water-thyme York., War., Oxf., Berk., Cumb., Linc., guanner-weed n.Linc. (believed to have been imported with guano), American weed, A. waterweed Linc., Glouc.

Elymus caninus

madge-moneylegs York. ("many legs", from its numerous creeping roots)

Bearded Couch

Elymus farctus

bent, bentle Suff.

Sand Couch

Empetrum nigrum



crow-berry Scot., Nhb., York., crawberry Gall., crow-ling w.York., crake-berries n.Cy., York., Nhb., craw-croop, craw-croup, craw-crook Scot., Perth., Lothian, craw-croobs w.Perth

berry-heather Shetl., Caith, blackberry Caith., black-ling n.York., wireling n.York., wire-weed Nrf., Suff., Kent., I.Wight, monnocs, monnox, monnocs-heather Antrim, moonog Irel., Scot. (Gaelic Irel. moineog "a bog berry", from móin "a bog, a moor"), crane w.York. (see Vaccinium oxycoccum), knauperts Banff, groose-berries Cumb., heath Derby

Epilobium angustifolium


Rosebay Willowherb

french-saugh Lanark, french-willow Cumb., Lanc., Lanark, War., blood-vine Hamp. eyebright Devon, cat's eyes (-)

Epilobium hirsutum


Greater Willowherb

codlins Cumb., York., Nhp., Glouc., Oxf., Suff., Devon, sugar-codlins Wilt., codlin(g)s-and-cream Cumb., York., Ches., Staff., Nhp., Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Surrey, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, Devon, raspberries-and-cream I.Wight (attributed to Eupatorium), codlin-apple (-), coddled-apple w.York., Linc., Nhp., War., cat-head ches., n.Linc., Midl., Hamp., w.Som., love-apple War., kezzick, keswick-apple York., Ches., apple-pie York., Ches., Glouc., Hert., Suff., Essex, cherry-pie s.Not., Wor., Dorset, corran-dumpling, apple-dumplin Nhb., sod-apple Wilt., custard-cups Shrop., plum-pudding Ches. gooseberry-pie Suff., gooseberry-pudding Sussex, I.Wight (the preceding names normally apply to edible plants; it is not known why they are given to this species), wild willow s.Cy., Wilt., blooming sally N.Irel., Donegal (= prob. Lythrum salicaria), wild flox Devon, fiddle-grass York.

Epipactis atrorubens

red-shank w.York.,

Dark Red Helleborine

Epipactis palustris

marsh-helleborine Hamp.

Marsh Helleborine

Equisetum arvense

bottle-brush Surrey, Scot., Nhb., Durham, frog fir-tree Westm., feather Oxf.

Field Horsetail

Equisetum fluviatile


Water Horsetail

pool-pipes Westm., frog-pipes w.York. (attributed to E. arvense), padda-pipe Nhb., s.Scot., York., n.Cy., paddock's pipe Scot., Lanark, Rxb., Gall., Nhb., Cumb. (padda = frog) (names also attributed erroneously to Hippuris), water-grass War.

Equisetum hyemale


Rough Horsetail

scrub-grass Cumb. (its rough stems are used for scrubbing or polishing fire-irons, or scouring dishes", bottle-brush w.York., Hamp., duck rush (-), rough horsetail

Equisetum palustre

marsh-weed Devon

Marsh Horsetail

Equisetum telmateia

asparagus Glouc.

Great Horsetail

Equisetum telmateia, Equisetum arvense

horse-pipe N.Irel., Antrim, Staff., horse-piping n.York., snake-pipes Cumb., Nrf., Essex., Som.

Great Horsetail, Field Horsetail

Equisetum, collective names


Horsetails, collective names

johnny-grass War., Wor., Sussex, johnny-weed w.Som. Hert., old-man's beard w.Som., Glouc., cat-rushes Ches., cat-whistles Suff., mare's tail (-), colt's tail Suff., Devon

Equisetum arvense


Field Horsetail

cat-tail Ches., War., Glouc., Berk., s.Berw., Midl., Suff., Kent, Hamp. Wilt., colt's tail Suff., Devon, fox-tail Glouc., prince-of-Wales feather Suff.

Eranthis hyemalis

peeping-februaries Wor., new-year's gift Essex (blooms very early)

Winter Aconite

Erica cinerea


Bell Heather

bell-heath, bell-heather Hamp., honey-bottle Wilt., bell-ling n.York., crow-ling e&n.York., wireling ne.York., carlin-heather Scot., black-heath Hamp., feather-of-heath n.York., she-heather Nhb., bent Ches. (a collective name for grasses)

Erica vagans

kekezza Corn.: Lizard dist.

Cornish Heath

Erica, Calluna



heath Scot., Cumb., York., Lanc., Staff., Derby, Nhp., Buck., Hamp., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., heth Hamp., Dorset, yeth Lanc., w.Som., Devon, yirth Lanc., heather Irel., Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., Ches., Linc., Hamp., hether Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Lakel., eather Perth, hather n.Cy., Nhb., n.Linc. (see Plant life)

Erigeron acer

flea-bane n.Linc.

Blue Fleabane

Eriophorum angustifolium, E. latifolium, E. vaginatum

moss-crop Scot., Edinb., Roxb., Cumb., Westm., Nhb., w.York., Lanc., nw.Devon, moss-crops-and-cutthroats w.York., moss-silk York., moss Rxb., Nhb., Dur., moor-palm York., ghost-grass w.York., wild cotton n.Scot., cotton-grass n.Linc., pussy Dorset  app. 3.9, floss-seave Ork., flowan Antrim, Down, cat-locks Cumb., cat-tail Aberdeen, Kircud., white cat's-tail Cumb., mare's tail rush (-), hare's foot w.York., hare's tail (-), ling Nhb., Dur., silky-ling Nhb., pull-ling Scot.: Tweeddale, draw-moss Gall., canna, cannach Scot., canna-down Angus [Gaelic canna(ch)]

Common Cotton-sedge, Broad-leaved Cotton-sedge, Hare's-tail Cotton-sedge

Erodium cicutarium

wild musk Bdf., five-leaved grass Hamp.

Common Stork's-bill

Erodium moschatum

picle-needle, muscovy Devon

Musk Stork's-bill

Erophila verna

fellon Banff.

Whitlow Grass

Eruca sativa

rocket (<Fr. roquette)


Eryngium campestre

hundred-thistle, dane-weed Nhp app. 1.6

Field Eryngo

Eryngium maritinum

sea-holm Corn.

Sea Holly

Erysimum cheirantoides

heart's ease Corn. (see pansy), terrify Linc., treacle-mustard (-)


Erysimum cheiri



bleeding-heart s.Wor., Glouc., Berk., Wilt., blood-wall Ches., Nhp., bloody-wall Som., warrior, bloody-warrior Som., churl Wor., Shrop., bee-flower Linc., winter gilly-flower Ches., whitsun-gilliflower Som., sweet-william e.Linc., french-wall-flo'er sw.Scot., mignonette (-), hand-flower w.York. (a transl. of cheiri)

Euonymus europaeus



gatteridge, gattridge e.Angl., e&s.Cy., Kent, Suff., gottridge Suff., gatter-bree Kent, cat-tree Berw., catty-tree Shrop., skewerwood n.York., Glouc., Berk., I.Wight, Wilt., Dorset, s.Devon (used to make skewer for butcher's), dog-tooth berry Surr., dog-tree War., spindle-tree (-), spindle-wood Glouc., witchwood Suff. (see Ulmus glabra), alder Berw. (?), death-alder n.Buck. (?), foul-rush (?) Buck.

Eupatorium cannabinum

andurion Lanc.: Ormskirk, fillaira N.Irel., water-agrimony Ches.


Euphorbia amygdaloides

mare's tail Donegal

Wood Spurge

Euphorbia cyparissias

clip-me-dick Lanc., Ches., kiss-dick Ches.,

Cypress Spurge

Euphorbia helioscopa


Sun Spurge

wet-weed, wret-weed Nrf., irby-dale grass Linc., sun-spurge (-) (French épurge), saturday-papper, saturday-night's pepper Wilt., seven-sisters Donegal, little-good Scot., Lanark, e.Lothian, devil's apple-tree Clackmannan (?); see also Euphorbia, collective names

Euphorbia hyberna

makkin-bwee, makin-boy Irel.

Irish Spurge

Euphorbia lathyrus

caper, caper-bush e.York., War., e.Anglia., Nrf., Suff.

Caper Spurge

Euphorbia peplis

milk-wort Wilt., petty spurge (-)

Purple Spurge

Euphorbia, collective names


Spurge, collective names

milk-weed Hert., e.Anglia, Essex, milk-wort Essex, milk-ort n.Scot., milk-flower Wilt., milk-sile York. milk-maid n.Linc., Sussex, n.York. (attributed to Calystegia sepium), milk-maiden(s) w.York., Midl., Essex., Wilt., Devon, milk-girl Devon, mouse-milk n.York., mamma's milk s.Buck., cat's milk Wor., devil's milk s.Wor., mad-woman's milk s.Buck., deer's milk Hamp., witch's milk Lanc. (err. attributed to "Hippuris"), devil’s milk Gall.

Euphrasia rostkoviana

eyebright n.York., Ches., w.Ches., Devon shop-eyebright Lanark (transl. of scient. name)

Common Eyebright

Faba vulgaris

tick Hert., Wilt., Som. (a variety), horse-bean (-)


Fagopyron esculentum



buck Hert., e.Anglia, buckwheat War. (Germ. buchweizen), (not "from the resemblance of its seeds to the mast of the beech-tree" - they do not resemble; buck is also found in other plant names: buckeye, buckthorn), crap Wor., Sussex, brank York., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., Essex, french-wheat Staff., Shrop., Hert., Corn., crap Wor., fat-hen n.Buck. (see Chenopodium album)

Fagopyrum tataricum

tartary-oat, tartarian

Tartary Buckwheat

Fagus sylvatica

beech (Dutch beuk, boek, Sw. bok, Dan. bøk, bog), mast (the nut)


Fallopia aubertii

bindweed Cumb. Ches., e.Anglia

Russian Vine

Fallopia convolvulus


Black Bindweed

bindweed Cumb. Ches., e.Anglia, bearbind Staff., bethwine Hamp., hay-gob War., hay-cruiks (-) "because it mats other herbs together twisting around them", hay-maiden Cumb., Glouc., Dorset, Devon, tether-devil, devil's tether Ches. (tether is a tangle, as of weeds - Wright), spade Nhb., goat's weed Wilt., clip-me-dick Ches., wild hop Ches., lap-love Scot., n.Cy., Midl., dother Ches. (a name attributed to several species; see Briza, Spergula arvensis)

Ferula narthex

devil's dung Scot., w.York., n.Lonc., Suff. (from its stench)


Festuca ovina

black-twitch Cumb., Midl., Bedf., sheep's-bent w.York., sheep's fescue Nhb.

Sheep's Fescue

Festuca pratensis

frisky Suff.

Meadow Fescue

Festuca sp.

goat's tail n.York.

Fescue sp.

Ficus carica



fig England, Ireland, fag Lanc., feg Nhb., Dur., Westm., Glouc., Wilt., Som., vig Merk, Wilt., Som. (also raisin, dried fruit in general), turkey-fig Devon

Filago vulgaris


Common Cudweed

chafeweed Nhb. (see Plant parts, chaffery), old-owl w.Suff., down-weed (-), clodweed s.Buck. (also Knautia arvensis), owl's crown Nrf., cudwort (-), hens-and-chickens w.York.

Filipendula ulmaria



king-of-the-meadow Shrop., queen-of-the-meadow Scot., Caith., Edinb., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., n.Linc., War., Devon, meadow-queen Rnf., Perth., maid-of-the-meadow Ches., may-of-the-meadow War., meadow-maid s.Pemb., lady-of-the-meadow Gall., lady's ruffles Wilt., meadow-sweet Nhp., meadow-soot Wilt. (for "sweet"), sweet-hay Sussex, honey-sweet Som. (sweet scent), mednart Scot., courtship-and-matrimony Cumb., Oxf., lemp Devon, dropwort(-)

Foeniculum vulgare



finkle n.Cy., York., Linc., Kent, finkel n.Cy., w.York. (from "foeniculum"), spingel, spignel Som.

Fragaria vesca

hedge-strawberry Devon

Wild Strawberry

Fragaria, cultivar

strawberry-wires Shrop. (the runners), red carolina Hrf. (a variety)


Francoa sonchifolia

bridal-wreath w.Som.

Bridal Wreath

Frangula alnus

dog-wood Hamp., stinking-roger Ches., black-aller nw.Devon, Corn., gunpowder-wood Surr., black alder

Alder Buckthorn

Fraxinus excelsior



ash Scot., Irel., Engl., esh Nhb., York. eisch Lanc. (Germ. esche, Sw. ask, Dan. asktræ), even-ash, even-leaf ash Nhb., w.Shrop., Wilt., nw.Devon, N.Irel. (the leaves)

The winged seed vessels: cat-keys n.York., Hert., kitty-keis ne.York, cat's and eyes ne.York., cats-and-keys Devon, cattikeyns Wilt., catty-keys Durham, cat-and-kittlings Linc., Nhp., cat-i'keys Durham, kit-keys Berk., culverkeys Kent, locks-and-keys s.Not., n.Linc., Surrey., se.Wor., Oxf., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex., w.Som., Devon, ash-key Engl., shackles Devon, see Rhinanthus

Fritillaria imperialis

crow-imperial Devon

Crown Imperial

Fritillaria meleagris


Snakeshead Lily

death-bell Cumb., dead-man's bells Shrop. doleful-bells-of-sorrow Oxf. (from the dingy colour of its flower), crow-cup Buck., crow-flower Wilt., Devon (dark flower), malfalaries w.York., drooping-tulip Devon, Lazarus-bell Devon, frits Berk. (short for Fritillaria), guinea-hen, guinea-hen flower Cumb., leopard-lily Devon, turkey-eggs Berk., pheasant-lily Cumb., wild tulip Nhp., War., cowslip Hamp., cowslop Ches., Nhp., Shrop., e.Anglia, n.Devon (= cow's lip), snake's head Hert., Berk., Oxf., Midl., Surrey, I.Wight, snake's head lily Oxf., Buck.

Fuchsia cultivars



drop Nhb., dropper, tropper-tree Som., Corn., lady's eardrop Sussex., w.Som., Devon, drops of Abel's blood Durham

Fumaria officinalis


Common Fumitory

earth-smoke n.Cy., w.York., hemitory Kent, fevertory Wilt., beggary e.Anglia, dicky-birds Wilt., lady's shoe Wilt., snap-dragon Nhp. (?)

Galanthus nivalis

snow-drop Hamp., snow-dropper Glouc., s.Buck., fair-maids Nrf., s.Hamp.


Galeopsis speciosa

bee-nettle Ches.

Large-flowered Hemp-nettle

Galeopsis tetrahit


Common Hemp-nettle

dead-nettle n.Cy., Nhb., n.York., Nhp., dea-, dee- dea-, dae-, deea-nettle Nhp, Nhb., Cumb., deaf-nettle Corn., blind-nettle Shrop., Oxf., nw.Devon, female-hems Linc., wild mint Devon

Galium aparine



cliders Hamp., I.Wight, Wilt., Som., Dorset, Devon, Corn., clyder(s) Hamp., Wilt., Devon, Corn., clythers Corn., claiton, cleeiton, clydern Dorset, cliden Devon, clidden, claden, cly Som., cly-burs w.Som., clite Pemb., Glouc., Oxf., Wilt., Dorset, clyte Wilt., clit Dorset, clitt Pemb., clite Glouc. (the seeds, from their cleaving to anything)

cleggers n.York., cling-rascal Devon, cleavers Nhb., Cumb., York., Linc., Glouc., e.Anglia, Wilt., Corn., Clavers n.Cy., Nhb., claver-grass, clavver-grass Cumb., clevers e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. (German kleber, from kleben "to cleave")

 goose-cleavers Lanark, goose-grass n.York., Cumb., n.Cy., Lanark, w.York., Ches., Glouc., Nrf., Suff., Devon, goose-tongue Ches., gosling-grass Nhp., Oxf., gosling-scrotch Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, pigtail, gosling pigtail Nhp.

stick-a-back Cumb., Lanc., Ches., sticky-back Cumb., stickleback Ches, sticky-grass sw.Cumb (for "Galium mollugo"), hook-a-back, huggaback Cumb., hug-me-close Dorset

scrat Nhp., sweet-hearts e.York., Oxf., Wilt., Devon "because its buss have such an affectionate way of clinging to one"

hairif England, harif(f) n.Cy., York., Not., sw.Linc., Glouc., hariffe Shrop., harift sw.Linc., War., Wor., Radnor, Devon, heyriff(e) Nhp., heiriffe, herif(f) Ches., Midl., Staff., War., Hamp., herrif Not., eerif s.Ches. eriff, erith s.Wor., errif(f) Ches., Staff., Not., Rutland, Leic., airif Linc., aireve Midl., haireve Glouc., hairup e.York., harrup, airup York., hairough e.York., Midl., Leic., hairrough n.York., airess, aress w.York. (OE hegerife); hairif also attributed to Filipendula ulmaria.

scratch-grass Hert., scratch-weed n.York., Nhb., Devon, grip-grass Nhb., snares w.York.

catch-grass Ches., Scot., catch-weed York., Lanc., catch-rogue Scot.

beggar-weed Nhp., Bdf., beggar-lice Nhp., Glouc., Hamp., harvest-lice Hamp., gentleman's tormentors Suff.

bur-head Nhp., bur-weed Nhp., Buck., Hert., pin-burr Bdf., popple Linc. (the seed; popple (also pebble, cobble), kandle-gostes, kandlegosses Ches., tongue-bleed(er), tongue-bluiders s&n.Cy., Nhb., York., Leic., Nrf., Suff., blood-tongue Scot., Ches.

robin-run-a-hedge, robin-run-(in)-the hedge N.Irel., Dublin, Scot., Lanc., Rxb., Dmf., Gall., s.Cumb., n.Lanc., War., e.Anglia, robin-run-the-hedge Nhb., Devon, rob-run-i' hedge, rabbie-rinnie-hedge, robin-round-the-hedge Ayr., lizzy-run-the-hedge Nhb., willy-run-hedge Sterling, jack-at-the-edge Donegal, robin-run-(in)-the-dyke Nhb., Lakel., Cumb., rob-run-up (the) dyke Cumb., jack-run-the-dyke Nhb.

gye e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff. (see Ranunculus arvensis), gull-grass Glouc., lakoo Shetl., soldier('s) buttons, soldiers' buttons Cumb., tether-grass Nhb., scurvy-grass w.York. (?), traveller's comfort, traveller's ease Wilt. (?)

Galium odoratum



scent-hairhoof n&e York., sweet-hairhoof n&e.York., kist-weed Banff, star-grass Nhb., Cumb., hay-plant Londonderry, new-mown hay Not., rock-wood Devon, woodrip Scot., Aberd., woodiy-ruffee n.York., War., woodruff, sweet woodruff (-), madder Wilt.

Galium saxatile

rock-straw w.York.

Heath Bedstraw

Galium verum


Lady's Bedstraw

straw-bed Devon, lady's bedstraw, ladies' bedstraw York., Not., Glouc., Wilt., Devon (also Galium saxatile and G. cruciata), ladies' golden-bedstraw n.York., rennet Cumb., Hert., Kent., runnet Kent, cheese-rennet Cumb., War., Don., cheese-renning Ches., cheese-running Ches., s.Cy., flea-weed Suff., hundred-fad Nhb., johnny-grass n.Cy., Midl., maid('s)-hair n.Cy., broom Shrop. (see Bramble), robin-run-a-hedge Lanc., w.York.

Genista anglica


Needle Furze

carlin-spurs Scot., cat-whin Cumb., York., petty-whin Scot., York., Ches. (on account of its thorns; = pettish; pet = temper), needle-whin n.York., needle-furze (-), heather-whin Nhb. moor-whin Nhb., moss-whin Nhb., jennet  app. 1.2.1

Gentiana verna

spring-violet Durham

Spring Gentian

Geranium lucidum

bachelor’s button Lanc., robin Devon

Shiny Crane's-bill

Geranium molle

star-lights s.Buck., mother-of-millions w.York.

Dove's-foot Crane's-bill

Geranium phaeum

mournful-widow York., Lanc.

Dusky Crane's Bill

Geranium pratense

loving-Andrew(s) Wilt.

Meadow Crane's Bill

Geranium robertianum


Herb Robert

red-weed Ches., red-shank w.York., red-bird's eye Oxf., red bobby's eye Hamp., Wilt., small robin's eye Glouc., red-breasts Nhp. (by attraction of the bird name Robin redbreast), robert, robert's bill, robin('s)flower, robinhood Devon, robin's eye Suff., Wilt., Devon, robin-redshanks n.York., robin-redbreast Nhp., robin-ith-hedge n.York., little-robin Kent, Devon, little-john-robin-hood, Dorset, red-robin s.Pemb., Hert., Cumb, Nrf., Essex, round-robin Devon, ragged-robin Buck., rubwort Ches., bloodwort Cumb., Ches., bloody-crane’s bill w.York., bloody-mary w.York., dragon's blood Shrop., Hamp., pink bird's eye s.Buck., London-pink Glouc.

stink-bob, stinking-bobby Cumb., Buck., n.Hert., Sussex, stinking-roger ne.Lanc., candlestick, wren's flower, wild geranium Devon, wild pink Glouc., squinter-pip Shrop., knife-and-fork s.Buck., knives-and-forks n.Som., cuckoo's eye s.Buck., Kent cuckoo-bread s.Buck., dog's toe Donegal, kiss-me Devon, soldier('s) buttons s.Buck., bachelor’s button Sussex, Devon, little bachelor button Sussex, billy-button Berk., bird’s eye Nhb., Berw., Devon, sparrow-birds Som., sailor's-knot Buck., fellon-grass n.York., fellon-wort n.York., herb-rabbit w.Som., Devon, stocks-bill n.Cy. (for stork-), fox-geranium e.Anglia >app, nightingale-flower Buck., kiss-me-john at the garden-gate(s) s.Buck., death-come-quickly Cumb. (prob. a misapplied name), adder’s tongue Essex (?). jenny-wren w.Som. is the Wren

Geranium versicolor


Penciled Crane's-bill

avens (Ofr. avence, Med. Lat. avantia, an unidentified plant), painted-lady Devon, king's hood Nhb., Queen Anne's needlework Nhp., granny's cap n.Wilt., granny's nightcap Wilt., old-woman's bonnet Wilt., bill-button Wilt., cock-and-hens Nhb., egyptian n.Wilt.

Geum urbanum


Herb Bennet

minarta Irel., brown primoses Linc., herb-bennet, herbal-bennet Glouc.(French benoîte) ram's fool root Devon, London-basket n.York.




Gladiolus (garden hybrids)

jacob's bladder Glouc., Suff., Devon: Ippleden, fox-glove Devon, french-pops w.Som., lœfer OE (see Iris pseudacorus)

Gladiolus (garden hybrids)

Glaucium flavum

squatmore Hamp., Dorset, gold-watches Dorset

Yellow Horned-poppy

Glaux maritima

sea-milkwort Ork.

Sea Milkwork

Glechoma hederacea


Ground Ivy

gill, gill-ale Irel., Cumb., York., Linc., Leic., War., Wor., Glouc., Berw., Kent, Sussex, Hamp., Som., Devon, ale-hoof York., Shrop., Sussex, Devon, Dorn., ale-hoofe Shrop., Sussex (used in ale making) (OE hōfe, ME hai-hove), jill Wor., gill-creep-the-ground Som., gill-go-by-(the) ground, gill-go-by-the-round Cumb., Linc., Hamp., jill-run-(by) the-ground n.Linc., Buck.

creeping-jenny n.Linc., jen-on-the-ground sw.Linc., jenny-run-by-the-ground n.Linc., jewel-run-the-ground Buck., ground-ivvins, ground-ivvens Ches., ground-avie, grun-davy Scot., n.Dmf., Nhb., runnidyke Cumb., rob-run-up (the) dyke Cumb., robin-run-a-hedge Fermanagh, s.Lanc., Ches., Derby., s.Not., Leic., Wor., Shrop., Sussex, nep Suff., bird’s eye Nhp., Oxf., Berw., deceivers Essex, devil's candlestick w.York., War., hens-and-chickens s.Buck.




Glyceria maxima

leed Linc., Cumb., lid Linc., white leed Linc., Cumb., withers Devon, reed-blade Nhp., palm-grass Nhp. (a name for Carex)

Reed Sweet-grass

Gymnadenia conopsea

long-tails Kent

Fragrant Orchid

Hedera helix



ivy Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Glouc., Kent, Hamp., Wilt., Devon, hivy Devon, ivin n.Cy., Nhb., Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, Linc., iven n.Cy., ivine n.Linc., hiven Nhb., hyven n.Cy., Cumb., e.York., ivvens (plural) Ches., ivvins e.Lanc. ivery sw.Linc., ivory Irel., Not., Nrf., Suff., Essex, Rutland, Hert., e.Anglia (Germ. efeu, OE īfegn, AS îfig, Germ.: Schlesien ewich), from Germ. ewig "eternal"; the ivy is an evergreen plant that seems never to die; it probably never does since it propagates over large surfaces by creeping stems; ivy-drum Hamp., Devon "the stems of ivy growing around the trunk of a tree"

alehoof York., Shrop., War., Sussex, Devon, Corn., hay-hoa Hamp., ale-hoove Shrop., Suss., alliff e.Suss. (these names have sometimes been attributed to "ground ivy" which, in this case is the ivy proper, not Glechoma hederacea; the species scientific name hederaca "ivy-like" is the cause of the confusion), love-stone Leic., bird’s meat Som., Devon (the berries) (also Holly), bindwood Scotland

Hedyotis caerulea

piss-a-bed w.York.


Helianthemum nummularium

sun-daisy Linc., rock-rose (-)

Common Rockrose

Helianthus annuus

wall-flower Shrop.


Helianthus tuberosus

black-jack, black-jerusalems Nhp.

Jerusalem Artichoke

Heliotropium arborescens

cherry-pie Wor, e.Kent, w.Som.

Garden Heliotrope

Heliotropium europaeum

soucye Scot. (French souci and many dial. variants Calendula officinalis)


Helleborus foetidus


Stinking Hellebore

setter Nrf., setter-grass .Cy., n.York., Essex, setter-wort n.Cy., w.York., Essex, Hamp., I.Wight "Used with garlic and other irritants for causing a running from the seton", gargut-root e.Anglia, Nrf., bear’s foot York. War., Wor., Glouc., Wilt., he-barfoot War., boar’s foot s.Berw.

Helleborus niger

winter-rose Devon, fellon-grass Cumb., Westm., setter-grass n.Cy., n.York.

Black Hellebore

Helleborus viridis

bear’s foot York. War., Wor., Wilt., she-barfoot War.

Green Hellebore

Hepatica nobilis

ivy-flower Glouc.


Heracleum sphondylium



eltrot Hamp., Wilt., Dorset, Som. (also attributed to other Umbelliferae such as Berula angustifolia and Anthriscus sylvestris, Oenanthe crocata, Daucus carota), altrot, eldroot Wilt., Dorset, eldertrot s.Wilt., eldrop Dorset, heltrot, hiltrot Hamp., hilltrot Hmp, Wilt., old-rot e.Som.,

cow-keeks, cow-kecks, cow-kelcks Nhb., cow-mumble Linc., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., cow-parsnip Staff., cow-stalk Corn., cow-clogweed Glouc., cow-flop Devon

dry-kesh Cumb., dryland-scout Tyrone: Rock, bun s.Wexf., Westm., York., Derby, e.Anglia (a dry stalk, hollow stem, especially of Heracleum).

bunnel Lanark, Cumb., bunnum n.York., bunnerts n.Scot., York., bunwand York., bunewand York., Scot., Angus (see bun in Plant parts), limperscrimp Som., Devon, limpernscrimp w.Som., limperscrip, limpet-screen, limp's krimp Devon, lumper-scrump Som., humpy-scrumples nw.Devon

hog-weed Staff., Cumb., n.York., Kent, Sussex, s.Buck., Hert., Nrf., Suff., pig's bubbles Som., pig's cole Devon, pig's parsnip Shrop., w.Cy., w.Som., pig-weed Oxf., bilder(s) Som., Devon., Som., swine-weed Nhp.

bluchtan, bluchton Gall. (“a piece of the hollow stem used as a popgun”), gulschock-scoot Ayres. (pea-shooter made out of the hollow stems), cat-haw-blows I.Wight (stalk used as a pea-shooter), pixy Corn. (the dried stem), spoots Cumb. (stalks used as candles).

sweet-biller Devon, broad-weed Dorset, broad kelk n.York., rough-kex w.York., keglus Ches., kedlock Lanc. Ches., caddel, cadweed Devon (perhaps by confusion with Sinapis arvensis, q.v.), hemlock Banff, Lanc., Nhb., York., e.Anglia, cushia n.Cy., York. (see Rumex obtusifolius: cushie-cow), devil's oatmeal War.(?), snake's meat Devon (?), hard-head Glouc. (a name for Centaurea nigra), beggar-weed Bdf. (a name for Galium aparine)

Hesperis matronalis


Dame's Violet

sweet-rocket (-), summer-lilac Som., red-rocket Ches. (the lilac variety), dame's violet (-), close-siney Devon, sciney, close-sciences e.Anglia (sciney is an apocope of Damascena; "sciences" is a contaminated form), whitsun-gilliflower Shrop., Som., Devon, whitsun-gilly War.

Hieracium (the tall species)

dindle e.Anglia, Nrf.  dindle = shake, tremble, stagger  app. 3.1


Hieracium aurantiacum

grim-the-collier War., Shrop., Cumb., Berk.Som., Glouc.

Orange Hawkweed

Hieracium pilosella

cat's ears s.Pemb., fellon-herb Corn., lamb-tongue, lamb's tongue War.

Mouse-ear Hawkweed

Hippocrepis comosa

lady-fingers Wilt., lady's slipper Wilt.

Horseshoe Vetch

Hippophae rhamnoides


Sea Buckthorn

wirwivvle, wirriwibble, wivivvle e.Anglia, whybibbles, wyebibble, wyrvivle, wyvables, wyvivvl Nrf., sea-buckweed (-)

Hippuris vulgaris

johnny-weed Hert., cat-tail Oxf., old-man's beard Dorset (?)

Mare's Tail

Holcus lanatus, Holcus mollis


Yorkshire-fog, Creeping soft-grass

duffle-grass York., Dur., pluff-grass Banff, wooly-softgrass Bnff., Yorkshire-grass Bdf., white-topped grass Cumb., white-twitch Bdf., Cumb. (attributed to Agropyron repens), white-grass n.York., hose-grass Ayr., hay-seed York., I.Man, pussy's tail Sussex  app. 3.9; midge-grass Nhb., dart-grass n.Cy., w.York., rot-grass Scot., pig-wick York., water-grass n.York., Glouc., Munster (?), this species is not associated with water

Hordeum murinum

squirrel-grass Kent, squirrel('s)-tail Cumb. Kent

Sea Barley

Hordeum secalinum

meadow-barley Sussex, squirrel-tail grass Kent, meadow-quake n.Linc.

Meadow Barley

Hordeum vulgare


Cultivated Barley

barley Scot., Irel., England, barish Irel., baarich Wexf. (ON barr), barley-big Suff., barley-pickle Scot. (the spike), bear-barley Nhb. (a coarse kind), bigg, big Scot., Nhb., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Derby, Nrf., Suff., byg Westm., bygg Nhb. “a coarse kind of barley”, chester-barley, chester-bear Angus, Perth (a coarse kind of barley), sprat, sprat-barley Nhb., York., Nhp., Suff. (a variety), layer-barley e.Suff. "barley sown with clover"

The awns: havel e.Anglia, avel Glouc., e.Anglia, avil Suff., ail widespread, aile Wilt., Corn., eye Wilt., ile War., Heref., Nhp., Essex, Kent, Wilt., Som., Devon, Corn., oil Suss., Hamp., Devon, oile Corn., oyles Berk., Hamp., hail Wilt., hile Devon, Corn., hoil Dorset, hoile Kent (awns of barley (or other kinds of grain) appear to be related to French aiguille; horn e.Anglia, e.Suff. (the awns), spire n.Linc. "horns of barley and of horned wheat", rauns n.Scot. (awns)

Hottonia palustris

water-yarrow York., feather-foil Cumb.

Water Violet

Humulus lupulus



hop Scot., Nhb., York., Wor., Hrf., Glouc., e.Anglia, Kent, Surrey, Sussex, Hamp., Wilt., Devon, Corn. (Germ. hopf; cf. Sw., Norw. hupp "tuft", East Flemish hoppe "clump of grass)  app. 2.7.1. holm Glouc., Sussex, Hamp., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., holme Hamp., holn, hoom Devon, holm-berry Dorset, home Dorset, Som., Devon, e.Corn., hum Corn. (Sw., Dan. humle, French houblon, MLDutch hommel, AS hymele), buck-hop Kent (the male plant), burr Kent, Surrey, Sussex, I.Wight (the blossom), farnham-whit Hrf. (a variety)

Huperzia selago

tree-moss Cumb. (from its shape)

Fir Clubmoss

Hydrangea macrophylla

heathereenge Frf., e.Perth, Fife, high-angels Corn., high-geraniums (corruptions of Hydrangea), changeable Linc.

Bigleaf Hydrangea

Hydrocotyle vulgaris


Marsh Pennywort

rot-grass Cumb., water-rot, white-rock Ches., white-rot Ches., Shrop. (a contraction of white-rocket - B.&H. in Wright; white is prob. for "water"), penny-rot Shrop., farthing-rot Nrf., ouw I.Man, fairy-table Ches., sheep-rot Caith., Nhb., Cumb., sheep bane (-)




Hyoscyamus niger

hen-pen Westm., hen-penny Lakel., hog-bean Cumb., stinking-roger Cumb., loaves-of-bread Nhp. (the seed-pods)


Hypericum androsaemum



tutsan(leaf), tutson Buck., e.Cy., Suff., tutsan (Fr. toute-saine), touchen-leaves, touchan-leaves Hamp., touching-leaf, touch-leaf Wales touch-and-heal Buck. (from tutsan, by folk etymology), treacle-leaf Cumb., sweet-leaf Devon, sweet-amber Sussex, Saint-Peter's wort n.York.

Hypericum calycinum



aaron’s beard Berw., Roxb., Nhb., n.Dur., Shrop., Glouc., Essex, Devon, old-man's beard Devon, star-of-Bethlehem Midl., Jerusalem-star Shrop., rose-of-Sharon Lanc., Ches., Linc., War., Suff., Dorset, rosin-rose York., sweep Wilt., Solomon's seal Nhp. (?)

Hypericum perforatum



john's wood Buck., john's wort w.Som., penny-john Nrf. (prob. from French jaune), Saint-Peter's wort Ork., War., touch-and-heal, touch-and-hail N.Irel. (see H. androsaemum), hard-hay (-)

Hypericum tetrapterum

hard-hay (-)

Square-stalked St.John's-wort

Hypochoeris radicata

bent e.York


Hyssopus officinalis

ezob n.York.


Iberis amara

billy-come-home-soon Shrop.

Wild Candytuft

Ilex aquifolium



holly Nhb., Westm., York., Pemb., Kent (Germ. hülse, hulst, Dutch hulst, French houx, OHG hulis, MHG huls(e), AS holig(n), holen, holegn, ME holi(n); Germ. hülse "husk, shell", on account of the leathery structure of the leaves); killin Corn. (O.Cornish celin, Breton kelen "holly"), culver Suff., hulver e.Anglia

 prick-holly s.Lanc., prick-bush sw.Linc., prick-timber Wilt., prick-wood Cumb., Buck., Sussex (attributed to Euonymus and Cornus sanguinea which are not prickly), hedghog-holly, Edinb., Christ's Thorn w.York., crocodile Som. (its leaves are crooked), she-holly, she-hollin Nhb. (the unprickly young leaves), free-holly Shrop. (the smooth upper foliage), aunt mary’s tree Corn., sparked-holm Som. (sparked = variegated), bird’s meat Som., Devon (the berries), poison-berry n.York.

Impatiens balsamina

jumping-betty Sussex, Prussian's cap Hamp.

Garden Balsam

Impatiens glandulifera

nun Lanc., policeman's helmet, Indian Balsam

Indian Balsam

Impatiens noli-tangere

old-woman's purse Cumb.


Inula conyza

spikenard w.York., fleawort (-)


Inula helenium



elicompane York., Lanc., Ches., Corn, allicampane w.York., velvet-dock I.Wight, wild sunflower I.Wight., horse-elder, horse-heal (-)

Iris foetidissima


Stinking Iris

dragon's flower Berw., dragon's tongue Kent, blue-seggin Ayr., field-lily Dorset, glading-root Irel., flag Devon, poison-berry Devon, dag-berry (for dog-) Dorset (the fruit), snake's meat, snake's poison Devon, adder's victuals Dorset (attributed to I. germanica), snake's fiddes I.Wight, snake's food Devon

Iris germanica

hog-knives Suff., duck's bill w.Som. ("a narrow-leaved variety" Iris sibirica ?)

Garden Iris

Iris pseudacorus


Yellow Iris

flag England, York., Not., Linc., s.Buck., Shrop., Oxf., Hamp., I.Wight, Devon, vlag Berk., flagger, flaggon, flagon, flagan Irel., fligger e.Anglia (var. of flagger), corn-flag (-), yellow-flag Ches., War., Hert., water-flag, water-gladiole Cumb. (attributed to Lobelia dortmanna), mekkin Lakel, York., Lanc., meckin Lakel., Cumb., meckan Cumb., maikin Lanc., makin ne.Lanc., meakin Lakel., w.York., n.Lanc., sword Scot.

 shelister Argyll, laister Corn. (O.Cornish alester, Welsh elstr, eleastar, feleastr Gael. Irel., seilisdeir Gael. Scot. "flag, yellow iris")

levers Irel., I.Wight., Wxf., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., leavers Corn., levver(s) I.Wight, Devon, levvur(s) I.Wight, liver(s), liver-leaves Dorset, liverack s.Pemb. (also any sword-bladed plant; OE lœfer "Gladiolus")

gladdon e.Anglia, gladden (bushes) Nrf., e.Angl., Nrf., gladen Nrf. (attributed to Typha), skeg e.York., trinity-plant Dorset (three large petals), flower(y)-de-luce York. (French fleur-de-lis), cucumbers Devon (the seed-vessels) dragon's flower Devon, butter-and-eggs Nhp., Oxf., Berw. (see Caltha), water seg York. (?)

Isatis tinctoria


Dyer's Green

green-weed, greening-weed e.Angl. (Dutch weede) yellow Midl., yellowing-grass Shetl. "grass from which a yellow die is extracted", woadwax, woadwex Wilt., Dorset, woodas Westm., woadwise Wilt., woadwesh, woadwish Gall., n.Cy., York. (AS waad, Dutch weede, Germ. waide, Dan. vaid, veid, Sw. veide app 1.2.1, sarrat Westm., she-broom n.York., Ches., brummal Corn. (see Brambles)

Jasione montana

blue-buttons Cumb., Wilt., Dorset, bluecap w.York., iron-flower Ches., sheep's bit (-)


Jasminum officinale



jessamy e.Anglia, Som. Devon, jessama, jessame Devon, jeshamy e.Anglia, Suff., horse-jessamin Devon "coarse-flowered j.")

Jateorhiza calumba (J. palmata)

collabin s.Pemb. (the root), from kalumb, its name in an African language


Juglans regia



walnut Hrf., Som., Suff., french-nut Som., Devon, Corn., vrench-nites Devon (the nut, as opposed to the hazelnut), hood Wor. (the outer shell),

Juncus (acutiflorus)


Sharp-flowered Rush

spart Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Durham, spret Fife, Dmf., I.Wight, Nhb., sprit Scot., Cumb., Nhp. Irel., spreat Scot., sprot Scot., Nhb., York., Nhp., sprawt, sproat Nhp., sprooat York.

clock-seaves, clock-seavers Cumb., York., clock-seeaves w.York., clock-seves, clock-sives n.York., sieves (see sedge in Plantlife), closs Cumb. (M.Dutch closs stipes, Dutch closs stem), flush-cocks Cumb., Westm.

Juncus bufonius

coa-grass w.Som. (coe is a disease of certain animals), salt-weed Suff. (= Glasswort ?)

Toad Rush

Juncus effusus


Soft Rush

watch-light-rush Lanark (used to make rush or watch-light), wire-rush n.York., hard rush (-), pin-rush Nrf., needle-rush Som. "a rush",  app. 2.13; chate Nrf. (Wright sub pin-rush), candle-rush (-)

Juncus squarrosus


Heath Rush

star w.Aberd., star-bent Cumb., stool-bent, bent-stool Scot., Nhb., whirl-bent Cumb., black-bent Nhb., Durham, rose-bent Nhb., bent Nhb. e.York., burra Shetl., Ork., bruckles Aberdeen, geus-corn Cumb. (These names have been attributed to "Juncus squarrosus", but the commonest species is Juncus articulatus for which no name has been attested)

Juniperus commun



ginifer, jinifer Nhb., geneva-plant Ches. (French genièvre, Lat. juniper), aitnach Aberdeen, Angus, horse-saving Cumb.

Juniperus sabina

kill-bastard York., bastard-killer w.Som.


Kerria japonica


Japanese Rose

yellow-rose Dev., summer-rose Devon, guinea-flower, guinea-plant n.Linc., jew's mallow (-), tisty-tosty Devon, bachelor’s button Wilt.

Knautia arvensis


Field Scabious

blue-buttons Cumb., Wilt., beily-button York., bachelor’s button Glouc., Berk., Wilt., Som., Devon, gipsy-rose, gipsies' rose w.York., Nrf., I.Wight, Devon, egyptian-rose I.Wight, broad-weed n.Dev., cardies Irel. (Italian carda "thistle"), lady's cushion, ladies' cushion Kent, morthen Hrf., pincushion Not., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex, Wilt., scabril Ches., clodweed s.Buck., sweet-scabious (-)

Kniphofia uvaria

devil's poker Devon, torch-lily (-), red-hot poker Devon

Poker Plant

Koenigia islandica

anise Devon

Iceland Purslane

Laburnum anagyroides



gold-chain(-tree) Nhp., War., Wor., Hrf., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., chaney ash Ches., golden-charms s.Pemb., golden-drops n.Linc., golden-rain War., Suss., golden-showers Shrop. (from its pendant blossoms)

drooping-willow Devon, ear-rings Ches., French ash Derby, French-broom Shrop., he-broom Fife, lady-fingers w.York., pea-tree, peascod-tree Scot., old-lad pea-cods w.York., watch-guards Ches.

Lactuca sativa

salad e&w.York. (as in France, the plant got its name from the dish)


Lactuca virosa

goat-lettuce w.York.

Great Lettuce

Lamium album


White Deadnettle

dumb-nettle w.Wor., Glouc., Hert., Essex, Wilt., dum-nettle Oxf., dun-nettle Shrop., dead nettle, blind nettle (-), bee-nettle Not. Linc., Leic., Ches., white bee-nettle War., white nettle Glouc., white sting-nettle, Devon, dinny-leaf nettle Buck., archangel Nrf., Leic., Som., Glouc., Buck., Devon, weazel-snout Som., honey-suckle Wilt., snake-flower Cumb., Nrf., Essex

Lamium galeobdolon

yellow archangel n.York., Devon, weasel-snout Glouc., w.Som., n.York.

Yellow Archangel

Lamium maculatum

variegated nettle York., Ches. (a learned name)

Spotted Deadnettle

Lamium purpureum


Red Deadnettle

dead-nettle Nhb., w.York., Shrop., Cumb., dea-nettle Nhb., day-nettle n.Cy., Caith., York., sw.Cumb., Wor., dee-nettle w.York., deea-nettle n.York., Cumb., deye-nettle Nhb., deaf-nettle York, w.Som., Linc., Wilt., Devon (also aplied to Lamium album; both look like a nettle but do not sting), bee-nettle Linc., Not. red bee-nettle War., red archangel Nrf., purple-dea-nettle Shrop., french-nettle Shrop bad man('s) posies Nhb., black-man’s posies Cumb., rabbit's meat Shrop., stinking-weed Cumb., dog-nettle Ches.

Larix decidua

larick Scot., Nhb., lairick Aberdeen, lerrick Lothian (name introduced along with the tree)


Lathraea squamaria

corpse-flower w.York., toothwort (-)


Lathyrus linifolius


Bitter Vetch

knapperts, knapparts Irel., Scot., Aberdeen, knopperts (-), knaperty Antrim, naperty N.Irel.; napple Scot., (from its knotty tubers - in Wright), peasling York., cormeille, caperilla n.Scotland, heath-pea; cob Dmf., Gall. (the seed vessel of peas) app. 2.7.3

Lathyrus nissolia

shoes-and-stockings Sussex., Buck.

Grass Vetchling

Lathyrus odoratus

painted lady I.Man, n.Wilt., show-pea Nrf.,

Sweet Pea

Lathyrus pratensis


Meadow Vetchling

yellow tare-tyne Midl., yellow tar-fitch Ches., yellow-thatch Wilt., golden-chain Wilt., craw-peas Nhb., tom-thumb Berk., Sussex, tom-thumb honeysuckle Wilt., thetch-hay Dorset, handlberry n.Cy., angle-berry n.Cy. “probably because it angles or catches hold and clings to plants or shrubs”, lady-fingers e&n.York., I.Wight, Wilt., lady's slipper Wilt., blue tare-tyne Midlands (?)

Lathyrus tuberosus


Tuberous Pea

carmel, carmylie Scot., carameil, carrameille Lanark (Gaelic cairmeal "wild liquorice, wood pea"), caperoiles Scot.: Lanark, fyfield pea (-)

Lavandula angustifolia



lavender Irel., England, Nhp., Berk., Hamp., lavendher s.Irel., spick, spik, speck Hamp., Wil., Dorset, Som. Devon, speet Som. speke, spuke Devon, spikenard York., Hamp., Wilt. (from the sc. name), knob Ches., neps Lanc., Ches., naps s.Ches. (the dried flower-buds) app. 2.2

Lecesteria formosa

Elisha's tears Dorset

Flowering Nutmeg

Legousia hybrida

long-codded corn-belt-flower War., "corn violet"

Venus Looking Glass

Lemna minor


Common Duckweed

duck'(s) meat, duke's meat Scot., dig-meat Ches. (dig = duck), duckweed (-), duckery se Lanc., duck-pond weed sw.Cumb., mardlens, mardlins, mardling e.Anglia, Suff., Essex (madle "pond"; for lens, see lentil), jenny-green-teeth War., boggart War., jenny-greenteeth, creed Wilt., rat-weed Nrf., mozed Shrop. "of a pond or lake: having the surface overgrown with duck-weed etc.", and prob. also with floating algae (conferva); = "mossed", see Conferva: moss-balls), groves, grozen Som.

Lens culinaris

lentil English (French lentille)


Leontodon autumnalis

scotch garkin Donegal, calve's feet Glouc., hawkbit

Autumn Hawkbit

Lepidium campestre

poor man's pepper War.

Field Pepperwort

Lepidium latifolium

dittany n.Cy., Nhb., dittander, pepperwort England (OF ditayne is from Latin dictamnus, Greek díktamnon, an unidentified plant). In botany Dictamnus albus is applied to an unrelated plant, the Fraxinella, or Burning Bush; Dittany is also applied to Origanum dictamnus


Lepidium sativum

pepper-cress Devon, tongue-grass Irel. (pungent taste), small salet w.Som. (salad)

Garden Cress

Leucanthemum vulgare


Oxeye Daisy

moon Wor., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Buck., Berw., Cumb., Nrf., n.Essex., Wilt., moon-daisy e.York., Ches., War., Wor., Shrop., Glouc., Oxf., Berk., Surrey, Wilt., moon-flower Wor. app. 2.11

oxeye, great oxeye Cumb., cow's eyes Corn app. 2.12

bull-daisy Cumb., n.York., Ches., e.Anglia, bull's eye Ches.  app. 2.1

horse-daisy Nhb., Hrf., Buck., Wilt., Huntingdon, Kent, Sussex, w.Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., harse-daisy Som., oss-daisy Devon, horse-pennies Derby, horse-gollan, horse-gowan, horse-gowlan Scot., Caith., Clyde, Berw., Nhb.

dog-flower Cumb., dog-daisy Antrim, Down, Nhb., Dur., Cumb., w.York., Lanc., Ches., Linc., Leic., w.Wor., Buck., Hert., Wilt., w.Som., nw.Devon (horse-, dog-: prob. on the model of bull-daisy)

daisy War., Sussex, London-daisy (-), gipsy's daisy Nrf., dun-daisy, dunder-daisy Som., poor-land daisy Nhp., poverty-weed Ches.

gold Lanc., white gold s.Cumb., n.Lanc., white gull Cumb., white gowlan Nhb., gadgevraw, gadjerwraw, gad-je-raw Corn., grandmother s.Not. "prob. because the white rays suggest the frilled border of an old-fashioned cap" (in Wright), espibawn Irel. (from Irish Gaelic easpuig-bán, easbog meaning "bishop" et bán "white")

dutch-morgan I.Wight, margaret w.York. (French marguerite), maudlin Wilt.  app. 1.5.1

maise n.Linc., mays sw.Linc., mazen Dorset, maithen Glouc., Wilt. (see Anthemis cotula), great-daisy Cumb., large dicky-daisy Ches., midsummer- crazy-bet Wilt. (see Ranunculus spp.), devil's daisy Midl. (= prob. Chamomilla)

Leucojum aestivum

snow-flake w.Som.

Summer Snowflake

Leucojum vernum

butter-and-eggs Dorset

Spring Snowflake

Ligustrum vulgare



privy, privie, privy-saugh Scot., York., Ches., War., Shro., Suff., privvy Lanc., privet England (used in hedges for privacy purposes; no kin to "primrose"), prim York., Linc., Nhp., Kent, Sussex, primp Linc., print Nhp., skedge, skedgwith, skerrish Corn.

Lilium candidum

lily Scot., England

Madonna Lily

Lilium martagon, Lilium tigrinum

turk's cap Derby, turn-cap lily War. (err. for turk-cap ?), crumple-lily Devon (from the turning back of the petals), elizabeth Corn.

Martagon Lily, Tiger Lily

Linaria vulgaris


Common Toadflax

butter-haycocks York., butter-and-eggs Cumb., York., Wor., Clouc., n.Berw., Essex, Kent, Sussex, Wilt., Dorset, Som. Devon, eggs-and-bacon w.York., s.Not., Rutland., Glouc., Nrf., Wilt., Som., Devon, eggs-and-butter n.Wilt., w.Som., Devon, eggs-and-collops n.Cy., w.York., Lanc., chopt-eggs Cumb. (from its bi-coloured flower, yellow and orange)

puppy-dog's mouth Wilt., tiger's mouth Sussex, lion's mouth Suss., mouse's mouths Wilt., dog-mouth Wilt., weasel-snout Kent

lark-spur Buck., gall-wort Suss., wild snap-dragon n.Linc., Oxf., dragon's bushes n.Cy., brandy-snap Sussex, bride-weed Shrop., monkey-face n.York., bread-and-cheese Wilt., shoes-and-stockings Devon, hens-and-chickens Kent, fox-and-hounds Linc., I.Wight, bacon-and-eggs Wilt. “so called from the two shades of yellow in the flower”

toad-flax (-), rabbit Devon, rabbit-flower Devon (also Cymbalaria muralis), snap-dragon York.

Linum catharticum

fairy-flax Berw., n.Cy., fairy-lint Nhb., n.Cy., purging-flax Ches., laverock's lint Lanark

Fairy Flax

Linum usitatissimum



lin Irel., Scot., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., Westm., York., Lanc., Linc., w.Cy., Dorset, lyn Nhb., lint Irel., Irel., n.Cy., Nhb., York., Ches., Shrop., e.Anglia, lahn n.York., leyne Cumb., line N.Irel., Dmf., n.Cy., Nhb., Dur., Cumb., York., Linc. (French lin "flax", originally from Latin linea "thread": the plant used to make yarns); lintseed Scot., Edinb., Shrop., I.Wight., lintzeed I.Wight, linset, linget Scot., linjet Frf. (seed of flax); lintseed-bow Scot., Shrop. (the pod), lint-bells Scot. (the flowers); flax Irel., Linc., Shrop., Dorset, Som., England, flix, vlix Dorset, vlex w.Som. (AS fleax, Germ. flachs),

Lippia citriodora

orange-willow Devon

Lemon Verbena

Liriodendron tulipifera


Tulip Tree

tulip-tree York., Wilt., Devon, an ornamental tree (attributed to Acer pseudo-platanus and justified "because the smell is supposed to resemble that of the tulip" ! (tulips have no odour)

Listera ovata

twayblade w.York. (not "swayblade" = twin-blade), adder’s tongue Wilt.

Common Twayblade

Lithospermum officinale

stony-hard n.Cy., n&e.York.

Common Gromwell

Lobelia urens

flower of the axe Devon “named from the river Axe”

Heath Lobelia

Lobularia maritima


Sweet Alison

sow-drift Devon, snow-drop berry Ches., snow-in-harvest Nhp., snow-on-the-mountain Devon, bordering, edging Devon (plant suitable for edgings), anise Devon (Latin anisum, borrowed from Greek anison), sweet-allison (-), sweet-alice Devon (also attributed to Arabis alpina) (Lat. alyssus < Greek álysson), honey-wort Hamp.

Lolium multiflorum

pickle Devon  app. 2.9

Italian Rye-grass

Lolium perenne


Perennial Rye-grass

rye-grass Hert., Wilt., riely, riley, rivery Irel., ray, rye-grass, ray-grass Wilt., eaver(grass) Glouc., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., aiver Corn., aver Som., ayver, hayver, heaver, iver Devon, Corn., eever Glouc., Devon., ever Dorset, Devon, Corn, every Glouc., Dorset, hayvor n.Devon, hever, hievre, hether Devon, Devon-eaver w.Som., Devon-evver Som. (OFrench evraie, French ivraie; ray- and rye-grass also relate to ivraie)

wrack's grass Scot. (see wrack sea alga), white nonsuch Nrf., tinker-tailor Devon, crop Suss., crap(grass) Wor., Suff., Sussex, bent Bdf. (collective name for grasses), aye-no-bent Glouc. (perennial rye-grass)

Lolium temulentum, L. perenne


Darnel, Perennial Rye-grass

dragge Nrf., Suff., drawk, drauk N.Cy., Nrf., York., ne.Lanc., e.Anglia, Nrf., Suff., Kent, Sussex, drake ne.Lanc., s.Ches., Staff., droke n.Cy., n.Ork., Kent, drook Ches., drooak n.York., drunk n.Cy., drunken-plant Buchan, by folk etymology; to drowk, drucken = to droop (OF droe appears to be a borrowing from English), darna s.Ches., darnel (-) (Walloon darnelle), cheat I.Wight, Dorset, cokil OE (Grieve), jum w.Cy., lovers' step Sussex

Lonicera periclymenum



honey-stick War., Glouc. (attributed to Clematis), honey-suckle Ches. suckle-bush Nrf., suckling e.Anglia (attributed to Lotus corniculatus), honey-suck York., Nhp., War., Hamp., Dorset, Som., honey-souk n.York., honey-zook Som., honey-zuck Dorset, honey-bind Oxf. (the base of the flowers are sucked for nectar), bind, bindweed w.York., bindwood m.York., Cumb., bearbind Ches., wood-bind, wood-bine Cumb., Linc., Rnf., w.York., Glouc., Oxf. n.Wil., wood-wind Shrop., withywind nw.Devon  app. 3.7; Irish vine Donegal, lady-fingers York., Dur., Nhb., Rxb.

Lotus corniculatus


Common Bird's-foot Trefoil

claws Som., cat's claws, cat's clover Nhb., Berw., Lanc., cat-poddish sw.Cumb., catten-clover cat-in-clover, s.Scot., craa-taes, craa's foot Nhb., craw-tees Nhb. (toes), crow-foot Glouc., Suff., bird’s foot Suff., sheep-foot sw.Cumb., cat's clover Nhb., cataclue Shetl.

pig's foot Suff., pig's pettytoes Suss., lamb's-foot Lanc., lamb-toe, lamb's toes Not., Linc., Leic., War., tommy-totles n.York., tom-thumb w.York., Oxf., Wilt., Devon.

cheese-cake n.York., Wor., cheese-cake flowers York., cheese-cake grass n.Cy., e. and n. York., cheese-flower Sussex, Wilt., cheese-log s.Berw., cheese-nut Devon, eggs-and-bacon Sussex., Nhp., Rutland, butter-jags n.Cy., butter-eggs Cumb., butter-and-eggs Cumb., War., Sussex (see Linaria vulgaris), ground-honeysuckle Ches., lamb-suckling, lamb's suckling n.Cy., w.York., bloom-fell, fell-bloom Scot., hens-and-chickens Oxf., jack-jump-about Nhp., cammock Devon (see Ononis natrix), claver Angus, yellow-clover w.York., lady's cushion, ladies' cushion, lady's pincushion Dorset, love-entangled Corn.

Lunaria annua



moon-wort Wilt., money-plant Devon, money-in-every-pocket, money-in-both-pocket Lakel., Kent, Wilt., Som., Devon  app. 2.11; shilling War., silks-and-satins Devon, satin-flower n.Linc., Nhp., white satin-flower Kent, satin-leaves Ches., davie-drap Scot., round sound honesty sw.Scot., soldier's feather sw.Scot.

Luzula campestris


Field Wood-rush

black-caps Nhb. black-head Ches., gipsy s.Wilt. (brown inflorescence like Gypsies), smut Buck (allusion to the black inflorescences), crow-foot n.York., cock Down, cuckoo-grass Nhb., w.York., Corn., gook-grass w.York. peesweep-grass Nhb., god-friday grass Surrey, god's grace Ches., hair-bearad Nhp.




Lychnis chalcedonica

scarlet-lightning Nhp., Glouc., Oxf., s.Buck., Suff., Devon, London-pride Scot., Glouc., Maltese cross (-)

Maltese Cross

Lychnis flos-cuculi


Ragged Robin

ragged-robin Buck., rough-robin sw.Cumb., robin I.Wight, Wilt., robinhood w.Cy., Dur., Dorset, w.Som., Devon, robin-wood Devon, robin-redbreast Corn., robin's eye, robin('s) flower Devon, robin-ith-hedge York. (robin = red, Lat. rubus),  red-bird's eye s.Radnor, red-butcher Ches., red gramfer-greygles Dorset, red-jack Ches., red mint-drops Nhb., red robinhood Wilt., red soldiers n.Cy., indian-pink Glouc., wild williams Berk., billy-button War., bachelor’s button Sussex

Lycopodium clavatum


Stag's-horn Clubmoss

running-moss Cumb., buck grass, buck-moss Cumb., buckthorn Cumb., Devon, Corn., creeping-burr Carmathan, fox's claws Nhb., fox-feet Cumb., moor-hen's foot Antrim, lamb-tails Shrop., fox's tail Nhb., Cumb., fox-tails Cumb. fork-and-knives e.Anglia, lady's knives-and-forks w.Som., knife-and-fork, knives-and-forks Shrop., robinhood's hat-band Cumb., York., good-luck Lakel., traveller's joy n.York.

Lysimachia nemorum

star-flower Wilt.

Yellow Pimpernel

Lysimachia nummularia


Creeping Jenny

creeping-jane Wilt., creeping-jenny War., Glouc., Wilt., Hert., Midl., nw.Devon, wandering-jenny Cumb., wandering-sailor Dorset, Devon. roving-sailor Hamp., meadow-runagates Nhp, for jenny  app. 1.2.2; two-penny n.York. (from its twin opposite round leaves), string-of-sovereigns Antrim, moneywort (-), mother-wort, mother-worth Hamp., Devon

Lysimachia vulgaris

yellow-rod n.York., yellow-saugh w.York., yellow-rocket Buck.

Yellow Loosestrife

Lythrum salicaria

red-sally Lanc., long-purple(s) Nhp., Wilt., Dorset, soldier Kent

Purple Loosestrife

Malcolmia maritima

little-and-pretty Devon, children of Israel Wilt., Dorset

Virginia Stock

Malus pumila, varieties


Cultivated Apple

apple Irel., Nhb., Linc., Nhp., Wor., Shrop., Hmp, Wilt. Som., Devon, Corn., fruit Wor., Hrf. (the apple); apple-blowth Som., Dorset “apple blossom”; croke, crak York., Linc., Devon "core of an apple".

Varieties of apple: well-apple Hamp., virgin, sweet-brat, lady-crab Ches., stire, stire-apple, john-apple Ches., Glouc., costard Scot., Lanc., Nhp., Shrop., Suff., Dorset (a large kind of apple), morris-apple Hamp. “an apple with very red cheeks”, belliborion, dore-apple E.Anglia, Nrf., early-marlet Hrf., flesh-and-blood, duck's bill, buff-coat, cobble-dick-longer-skin Devon, golden-nob, golden-pippin w.Som., golden-rozet Hrf., golden-tankard w.York. (shaped not unlike a pear), goose-apple Ches., Shrop., gracy s.Devon, griffin Dorset, hard-head Lakel., honey-pin Corn., honey-pink Dorset, kempster Oxf. "from the name of the man who first introduced this variety", prob. by folk etymology; kemps = "coarse fibres", the name denoting perhaps a coarse variety), lady-apple e.Dorset, lady-buddick Som., Mary-apple Hamp.  app. 1.4; madgetin e.Anglia, e.Suff. (the Margaret apple, cf. Normandy margoton, a variety)  app. 1.5.1; manperamble Leic., nonpareil (French nonpareil), quarrener Som., Devon., Corn., caraway Som., quarender, quarendel, quarington Devon., quarendon Corn., quarantine nw.Devon., Corn., queening Ches., Shrop., Hrf., queenen, quinin Shrop., quining Hrf., white heads Devon, red-streak Hrf., red-strokes Lakel., rust-coat Som., hoar-morning nw.Devon., dogsnout Lakel., espaniard Devon, hoary-pitcher, hoary-mourning Pemb., bomble Glouc. “potato-apple”, apple-john Ches., War., e.Anglia, white heads Devon, lady-fingers Ches., lammas w.Som. (a variety ripening about Lammas Day; see Prunus domestica)

Malus pyrifolia

forbidden-fruit War., Wor.

Asian Pear

Malus pyrus, varieties


Cultivated Pear

whitten-pear, whitty Wor., Shrop., Hrf., Radnor, w.Cy. Wilt., witty w.Wor., Shrop., whitty-pear Wor., whitty pear-tree Shrop., Hrf., w.Cy., bishop’s thumb w.York., w.Som., tarporley-peach, Aston town pear, tattenhall girder Ches., stone-pear n.York., choke-pear Shrop. ("a very hard winter pear"), cuisse-madam, queez-maddam Scot. (the jargonelle) (French cuisse-dame), elsin-heft Scot. "an old name of the jargonelle pear", golden-knap Sterling, gold-nep s.Lanc., Ches., honey-knobs War., Wor., honey-pear Lanark, apple-pear (-), woody-carl Rxb., mumby e.Anglia, rousselette, jargonelle (-)

Malus sylvestris


Crab Apple

crab Scot., England, grab(apple) Nhb., Glouc., Wilt., Dorset, Som., Devon, Corn., wood-crab w.York., wharre Cumb., York., Lanc., Ches., Derby, werr nw.Devon, wher York., e.Lanc., wherr s.Lanc., whir Cumb., w.York., Derby; from hurr (Linc., Kent., Sussex) tart, astringent, rough-tasting, yar (York., Lanc.) acid, sour, wherry" very sour", coling, koling Shrop., law e.Anglia (also the berries of the haethorn, the blackberries and the rose hips), stub-apple e.Anglia

Malva sylvestris


Common Mallow

maul n.Cy., York., Derby, Not., Linc., mawl Derby, mall sw.Linc., mallace Buck., Hamp., I.Wight, Som., Devon, malice w.Som., Devon, mallus I.Wight, maws Scot., Nhb., Not., mawse, maas Nhb., mullere Buck., marsh-mallow Ches., marsh-mallice, marsh-mallish, marsh-mallus Nhb., Shrop., Lakeland, w.Som., Devon, french-mallow Corn.,

The fruit: cheese England widespread, bread-and-cheese York. n.Linc., Shrop., Oxf., Hamp., s.Wilt., Dorset., Som., Devon, cheese-cake n.York., Ches., n.Linc., Wor., Dorset, chokky-cheese, chocky-cheese, chuck