GODS, GODDESSES AND OTHER MYTHICAL BEINGS

 

ORIGINS AND MEANING OF THEIR NAMES

 

In this list, I propose a different origin, or a more elaborate etymology for the names of mythological beings, than that usually found in common sources. There would otherwise not be any reason to publish such a list.

Most legends arise from the confusion caused by a phonological convergence; such convergence is often the result of the overlaying of two strata. The original signification of the word having become incomprehensible, a clearer meaning is attributed to it; the result is a "folk etymology". To arrive at this explanation, one must often give himself over to those excesses of imagination characteristic of Greek mythology.
It is always the animal or the thing into which the mythical being has been transformed, who first bore its name. Thus it is through the name of the object or the animal that the name of the divinity must be clarified. In the same manner, it is the name of the country that gave the name to the mythical being, not vice versa.

 

References:
KLEIN, ERNEST, 1966-1967.
A comprehensive dictionary of the English language. One-volume unabridged edition, 1971. Amsterdam, Oxford, New York.

PARISOT, V., 1855. Petit dictionnaire classique de mythologie comparée. Hachette,Paris.

The following are mostly extracts from M. Desfayes, 1998. A thesaurus of bird names – Etymology through paradigms. 2 vol., 2570 pages, illustrated CD-rom. Cahiers du Musée No. 2. Museum of Natural History, Sion, Switzerland. CD corrected and augmented, 2008.

 

Acoran (Guanche). God. See Goren.

Ačamon, Ažamon (Guanche). Deification of the sky. See Ammon.

Abellio (Gaulish). Probably identical to Belenos. See Belenos.

Acherōn (Greek). One of the rivers of Hades. From Gr. áchos "woe" is the only logical explanation. The other etymologies (i.e. "marshes") are unsatisfactory.

Achilleus (Greek). Son of Thetis and Peleus, caracterized by a small wing on his heels :

Catalan

axella

shoulder articulation, armpit, bird

Italian: Naples

ascella

wing

Greek

Achilleus

(< Romance) a mythological figure caracterised by a small wing on his heels

Italian: Naples

ascielletta

bird

Italian: Tirol

ocela

bird

Italian

uccello

bird (winged being)

 

Ader (Persian). Genie of the fire. See Aidonē.

Adōnis (Greek). Name of a Greek youth, renowned for its beauty; he was changed into a plant. Also a Syrian and Phoenician god worshipped in Greece (Bailly). Related to Adonai, a Hebrew name of God (Klein), from adhon "lord".

Aedōn (Greek). Sister of Chelidōn, changed into a nightingale. From an acoustic base -d :

Greek

audē

noise, voice

Italian

audire, udire

to hear: to perceive a sound

Greek

ōdē

song

Greek

aeidō, adō

to sing

Greek

aēdōn

Nightingale

 

Aegle (Roman, borrowed from Greek). Daughter of the sun; sister of Phaethon (Hyginius); one of the Naïades (Virgile). See Aglaia.

Aellō. Name of a Harpy. See Aiálos.

Aeropē, see Meropē.

Aesar (Icelandic). Scandinavian gods, the most powerful and the best of the supernatural beings. See Asia.

Agamemnon (Greek). King of Mycenae. From Gr. ágan "very much" and médōn "ruler" , thus "the great ruler" (Klein).

Aglaia (Greek). One of the Graces. From a base g-l shining:

 

Breton

glavu

glowing coal

Albanian

gjevëz

purple red

Welsh

gloyw

shining

English

glow

incandescence

German

glühen

to glow red

Gaelic Ireland

glé

shiny, pure

Ancient Greek

aglē

glitter, light

Ancient Greek

agly

swan

Latin

Aegle

daughter of the sun; sister of Phaethon (Hyginius); une des Naïades (Virgile)

Gaelic Ireland

glinne

clarté

Gaelic Ireland

glaine

purity; glas

Welsh

glain

to shine

Ancient Greek

glēnē

pupil of the eye

Ancient Greek

glainoi, glēnos

ornament, jewel

 

Aiálos (Eolian Greek). God of the wind. From áella tempest, whirlwind, aiólos moving, quick moving, Welsh awel breeze.

Aiās (Greek). Hero known for his speed and strength. See preceding word.

Aidonē (Greek). A god of the lower world : the fire. From a base -d fire :

 

Sanskrit

aidhā

flame; édhas fuel, kindling; indháte to kindle

Old Persian

Ader

genius of fire

Hebrew

Adarniel

angel presiding over fire

Basque

uda

summer

Basque

eder

beautiful

Gaelic Ireland

aed

fire

Greek

Aidonē

god of hell

Welsh

aidd

ardour

Gaelic Scotland

odhar

pale yellow

Gaelic Scotland

oida

white

Welsh

ôd

snow

Basque

edur, elur

snow

 

Aigaiōn (Greek). Son of Poseidon, allied to Thetis. See next word.

Aigaia (Greek). Queen of the Amazons, eponym of the Egean Sea. Origin: Gr. aiges "the waves" (Carnoy) in which one recognizes the Romance aigue "water".

Aigestes (Greek). Son of fluvial god. See Aigaia.

Aigeus (Greek). Son of Pandion. Threw himself in the sea that bear his name (Aigaiōn, Egean). Same root as preceding word.

Aigypios (Greek). Was changed into a vulture. A name of Illyrian origin. Ancient Greek gyps. aigipios, Albanian gyipë "vulture", from Albanian gup "dishevelled (hair)", equivalent to Italian grifone "Griffon Vulture", a shaggy looking bird.

Aineias (Greek). A Trojan hero, mythical ancestor of the Romans. From Gr. ainós terrible, dreaded.

Ainias (Greek). Nickname of Aphrodite. From aínos tale, praise. From a base s-n, h-n to sound :

 

Basque

honen

bell sound

Latin

honor

honour, reputation

Greek

aínos

(borrowing) tale, praise

French

sonner

to sound

 

Ais (Armenian). Devil. From a base -s dark :

 

Arabic

`āšā

to be dark

Sanskrit

ásita

black

Sanskrit

asu

devil

Armenian

ais

devil

Greek

ásis

mud

Tokharian

āsar

dry

Greek

azein

to dry

Sanskrit

ásah

ash

English

ashen

grey; ash grey residue that remains after burning.

German

asche

ash

French: Mons

achéré

very dirty

French (dialectal)

ačioun

ash

Old French and dialectal

achon

"azure"

 

Ais (Etruscan). God. See Asia.

Aisōn (Greek). Leader of the Argonauts.

Aisákos (Greek). Son of Priam; threw himself into the sea and was transformed into a diving bird. From a base s-k, s-nk to sink, to dive :

Basque

dzanga

to dive

Basque

sanga

Gannet, a bird remarkable by its impressive vertical dives

Spanish

sangual

Osprey (catches fish by diving form a height)

Latin

sanqualis

(borrowing) Osprey

Breton

sanka

enfoncer

German

sinken

English to sink

 

Aisklēpios (Greek). God of medicine, usually associated with snakes. From skolýptesthai to wind here and there, skoliós tortuous (like a snake), skoliótēs winding (like snakes), skōlyx worm, kyllós hooked, and Latin coluber snake.

Aith (Etruscan). God of hell. A name having the notion of fire and heat. From a base -t fire:

 

Persian

ēteš

fire

Persian

Atešgagh

a god (Pyrrhos of the Greek)

Talysh

otoš

fire, otöša colour of fire

Kurde

teišin

to burn

Old High German

eit

fire

Gaelic Scotland

te

hot

Welsh

tes

heat

Romance

été, està, estio

the season of heat

Albanian

ethë

fever

Greek

eithos

fire; aitho to light

Etruscan

Aith

god of hell

Gaelic Ireland

athas

joy

Greek

aithein

to shine

Phoenician

attunà

oven

Greek

Aitnè

the Etna

Vedic

Atharvan

a fire priest

Vedic

àtarsh

fire

Greek

aithra

clear sky

Greek

aithr, aèr

air

French

air

English air

Sanskrit

ayara

day

Gothic

air

early

English

early

originally: at daybreak

 

Ajax, see Aiàs.

Akastē (Greek). One of the Oceanides. See Kassiopē.

Alāha (Syriac), see Allah.

Alektōr (Greek). King of Elide, or son of Pelops. See next word.

Alektryōn (Greek). Daughter of Eole and wife of Ceyx, was caught by the sun near Venus and changed into a cock. From a base -lk, l-k to crow, to sing :

 

Swedish

elak

goose

Middle Low German

alcke

goose

Italian: Badia

alca, alcûn

goose

English

elk

swan

Greek

alkyōn

a sea bird

Italian: Calabria

alcuni

gull

Italian: Abruzze

álăkă

gull

Basque

alkoi

tern

Catalan

alció, alcina

tern

Provençal

alcyon

tern

Italian (dialectal)

alcione

tern

Persian: Pahlavi

alka

cock

Lezgian

alkuz, alek

cock

Greek

alektor

cock

Greek

Alektryōn

a goddess changed into a cock

Modern Greek

alechtóras

cock

Greek

lakázō

to cry

Greek

lakétas

cicada

Latin

oblecto

to play

Greek

lexis

word, elocution

Basque

elakatu

bavarder

German

lachen

rire

German

schlackergans

Grey Lag-Goose

French (dialectal)

sliaqueter

chabauder, FEW 22: 8

Greek

lakeryza

bawler

Lettish

lakštēt

to sound

 

Alfr (Old Norse). A sprite. See elf.

Allah (Semitic). God. From a base –l shining. It is probable the today's prostration towards Mecca was originally directed towards the rising sun.

 

Dravidian

ullu

daylight

Mongol

ulaan

red

Sumerian

'el

light

Copt

al

daylight, splendor

Ancient Egyptian

āāl

flame

Phoenician

Al

God (the deified light)

Hittite

alis

white

Welsh

aeled

fire

Gaelic Ireland

àille

beauty

Gaelic Ireland

aol

to whiten; lime; ael "bright colour"

Gaelic Scotland

eala, aoi

swan

Welsh

alarch

swan

Latin (poetic)

olor

swan

Welsh

elfydd

world

Ancient Greek

eílè, alèa

heat of the sun

Basque

il, ileski, ilazky

moon

Basque

talil, illebete

month

Akkadian

Ilu

God

Akkadian

ellu

shining

Assyrian

élàlu, hàlu

to shine

Hebrew

hàlal

to shine

Arabic

halla

to shine

Persian

`ālam

world

Arabic

allāq

to light

Albanian

llap

(from Semitic via Turkish and with k > p) to shine

Arabic

halla

to shine

Arabic

Allah

God

Arabic

a'ali

powerful (change of category)

Basque

al

power

 

Amata (Roman). Wife of Latinus, who had many suitors. From Latin amare to love.

Amazōn (Greek). A member of female warriors in Scythia. This mysterious name may be explained by the Pahlevi am mother, woman, thus "woman of the Asons or Ases" = Ossets. The Caucasus has been called "mountain of the Ases" where the Ossets are still found this day.

Amiran (Persian). Guardian spirit of the light:

 

Hebrew

mer

to shine

Bulgarian

mir

world

Guez

amir

day

Old Persian

Amiran

genius of light

Persian

mihr

sun

Dravidian

miru

shining

Canarese

mirugu

to shine

Greek

amarygès

shining

Basque

margo

shining

German

morgen

morgen

Lithuanian

mirgu

to shine

 

Ammon (Egyptian). God of the sky. From a base s-m blue :

 

Kurdish

asman

sky

Old Persian

Asman

the sky personified

Egyptian

Imn

Ammon

Phoenician

Eshmun

the sky personified

Guanche

Achaman, Azaman

god; sky

Persian

yāsimin

jasmin, blue flower

Persian

yašm

jaspe, a precious stone

Old French

jasme

jaspe

Turkish

yeshem, yesem

(pre-Osman substr.) white jaspe

Romanian

iezm

(viaTurkish) white jaspe

Spanish Andalusia

jazmín

an entirely white pigeon

 

Amykos (Greek). Giant who preyed on travellers. From a base m-k big:

 

Sumerian

makka

greatness

Berber: Hoggar

makkoren

big

Guanche

makoran

the gods

Tokharian

mak

much

Italian

macca

abundance

German

macht

power

Dravidian

mikkili

big

Tamil

mikka

big

Old German

mikila

big

Phoenician

Mikal

a god identified with Heraklēs,

Greek

Amykos

a giant who preyed on travellers

Greek

mikos

length

Hittite

mekki

much; mekis big

Etruscan

mex

much

Spanish

mucho

much

English

much

a lot

Serbocroatian

moç

power, influence etc.

Czech

moc

power

Russian

mozno

possible

 

Anchisēs (Greek). Father of Eneas, was maimed by Zeus. From a base -nk angular :

 

Greek

ankyra

anchor

Greek

Anchisēs

a god (allusion to his aspect after he was maimed)

Latin

uncus

hook

Italian: ReggioE.

ancon

elbow

Latin

inguen

groin: anatomical angle, French aine

English

angle

 

 

Andarta (Breton). A goddess. From a base dr-t "shining":

 

Albanian

dritë, ndriçim

light

Albanian

ndruj

illuminate

Albanian

ndrit

to shine

Albanian

ndritur

clear, resplendent, illustrious

Breton

Andarta

a goddess

Mod.Greek

andrakis

glowing fire

Mod.Greek

andrax

coal, carbuncle

Anc.Greek

anthrax

id.

Mod.Greek

andrakotós

zinc white

Spanish

andrina, endrina

sloe (a light blue fruit)

 

Andromachē (Greek). Wife of Hector. Name interpreted as "she who fights like a strong man" (Carnoy).

Andromedē (Greek). Daughter of Cepheus, king of Ethiopia and of Cassiope. Name interpreted as "she who reigns over humanity" (Carnoy).

Angel (English). From Greek angelos "messenger".

Angelo (Roman). Daughter of Jupiter and Junon (the Messenger).

Antigonē (Greek). Daughter of Oedipus. Also daughter of Laomèdon (Greek). From anti opposite and gonè giving birth; interpretation of this etymology is conjectural.

Aphrodítē (Greek). Goddess of love; see Hermaphrodítē.

Apóllōn (Roman) (Greek). God of the sun, the round celestial body. From a morphologic base p-l round (Cf. Korè) :

 

Spanish

avellana

hazelnut

Lithuanian

apvalus

round

Greek

Apóllōn

Greek and Gaulish god identified with Helios, the sun, the only celestial body appearing constantly round

 

English

apple

roundish fruit

German

apfel

apple

 

Aponius (Greek). God of the thermal waters. From Romanian apă water. See Epidius.

Ara (Hittite). A divinity of the fields. From a root ar-, English earth.

Arēs (Greek). God of war, identified by the Roman with Mars. From a root ar- to ask, curse:

 

Greek

areiē

a cursing, menacing

Greek

Arès

god of war

Greek

arētēr

the one who addresses prayer to the gods

Hittite

arya-

to ask the oracle

 

Aréthousa (Greek). Nymph of a fountain near Syracuse. A collateral form of ardousa waterer (Klein).

Argeia (Greek). Daughter of Okeanos. See Argos.

Argonautēs (Greek). Heroes led by Jason to fetch the golden fleece. See next word.

Argos (Greek). Giant with a hundred eyes, personification of the starry sky. From a base -rg shining :

 

Basque

argi

shining

Basque

argia

light

Greek

argēs

white, shining

Greek

Argō

ship of the Argonauts: the sun

Greek

Argos

giant with a hundred eyes

Greek

Argeia, Argyra etc.

divinities

Breton

argant

silver

French

argent

shining metal

 

Arinna (Hittite). Goddess of the sun. See Horai.

Arktos (Greek). Name of Centaure and of two constellations; arktos bear.

Artemis. Greek name of the Roman Diana. From a base r-t shining, yellow :

 

Basque

iratzi

to set fire

Basque

aratz

shiny, pure,beautiful

Greek

Artemis

goddess of the moon

Greek

artemísia

a whitish plant (absinth)

 

Asar (Egypte). The same as Osiris. See Asia.

Ases, see Aesar and next word.

Aštóreth. A Canaanitish goddess; see Astarte.

Asia (Greek). Daughter of Okeanus. From a base -s- fire, light :

 

Caucasus: Abkhaz

ša

dawn

Hittite

siwat

day

Oubykh

s'a

white

Basque

su

fire

Sanskrit

sus

devil

Akkadian

isu

fire

Old Norse

ysja

fire

Albanian

iskër

spark

Etruscan

usil

sun

Albanian

jezull

hot coal

Turkish

yezil

(I.-E substratum, prob. from Albanian) yellow-green

Kurdish: Sorani

Yezdan

god, personification of the sun

Persian

Ized

personification of the sun

Greek

Osiris

an Egyptian god, personification of the sun

Hebrew

esu

day

Hittite

assu

good

Sanskrit

su

good (Greek eu- has been related)

Syriac

Aziz

assessor of the sun

Arbic

aziz

charming

Berber

ass

day

Basque

oz

sky

Assyrian

Zu

god

Ethiopia: Hamar

zo

dark red

Persian

àzar

fire

Greek

azo

to burn

France: H.Savoie

si, assi

fire

French (dialectal)

aisir

to burn

French: Béarnais

ajèy

glowing fire

Lithuanian

aiškéti

become clearer (figurative)

Etruscan

Ais

God

Icelandic

Aesar

Scandinavian gods

Ombrian

Esuna

god

Osque

aasai

burnt

Greek

Eos

dawn, personificatin of dawn

Greek

iosis

rust

Basque

izokin

salmon (pink flesh)

Latin

isox

id.

Cornish

ehoc

id.

Breton

eok

id.

Sanskrit

usis

copper

Sanskrit

usàs

dawn

Lithuanian

aušra

dawn

Greek

Auson

son of Italos and Leucaria

Old Prussian

ausis

gold

Lithuanian

auksas

gold

Tokharian

wäs

gold

Sanskrit

ustáh

burning

Italian

ustione

combustion

French

combustion

burning

Old H. German

ostar

the East

English

east

the East

Georgian

Osi

name of a tribe related to the Alans, people of the East, the Ossets, cf. Asioi,below

Russian

osetin

Osset

Russian

vostók

the East

German

gestern

yesterday (Latin hesternus "of yesterday" is evidently a borrowing)

English

yesterday

 

Old English

Eastre

a Teutonic goddess of spring

English

Easter

a spring festival

Italian

ostro

purple colour

Italian

ostro, austro

Latin auster "south wind " (?)

Old Norse

austr

the East

Greek

Asia

Anatolia, region of dawn

Greek

Asiai, Asiaioi

Ossetes, people of the East

Greek

Aísa

Thrace

Assyrian

açu

the East

Hebrew

Aššur

Assyria

Latin (borrowing)

aser

blood

Hittite

išar

blood

Tokharian

ysar

blood

Greek

ichor

blood of the gods

Etruscan

es'i

blood

Afghan

asai

hoarfrost

Ossetish

ix

ice

English

ice

ice

German

eis

ice

 

Askálaphos (Greek). Son of Acheron, changed into an "owl". However askálaphos appears to be the same word as askalopas, the Woodcock, a crepuscular bird with large eyes, somewhat like an owl.

Asōpos, Aspa (Greek), Asopus (Roman). Beotian fluvial god, son of the Ocean and Thetys changed into a river by Jupiter. From Romanian apâ water.**asp ?

Astarte (Phoenician). Goddess who presided over the destinies of all stars. From a base s-t shining :

 

Hebrew

esther

the star Venus

Akkadian

istar

the star Venus

Tokharian

àstär

clear, clean

Assyrian

Ištar

chief goddess of Assyrians and Babylonians

Phoenician

Astarté

goddess presiding over all heavenly bodies

Hebrw

Aštóreth

a goddess

Dravidian

istar

star

Greek

astēr

star

Greek

astéria

daughter of the moon

Modern Greek

xásteros

clear sky (with prosth. x, cf. xaspizo, aspizo)

Greek

stérops

shining

Modern Greek

asterátos

having a white spot on the forehead

Greek

astērias

a kind of heron

Greek

astraia

starry

Greek

Astraea

goddess of justice, the personification of innocence and purity.

Modern Greek

astari

lightning

English

star

a shining celestial body

French: Savoie

stârâ

to clean

Gaelic Scotland

tuar

to blanch, whiten

 

Astéria (Greek). Daughter of the Moon, thrown into the sea by Zeus. Appears to represent a meteorite. See Astarté.

Asthoreth. Canaanitish goddess, identical with Astarté, q.v.

Astraea (Greek). Daughter of Jupiter and Themis, goddess of justice. See Astarte.

Asu (Sanskrit). Devil. See Ais.

Atešgagh (Persian). A god identified with the Greek Pyrrhos. See Aith.

Athēnē (Greek). Goddess of wisdom, identified with the Roman Minerva. See Aith.

Athamas, Athamant (Greek). Husband of Nephelē, father of the rising sun (i.e. he comes before sunrise). From a base t-m dark :

 

Gaelic Ireland

temen

darkness

Russian

temnyj

dark

Russian

potemki

dark;dusk

Czech

temnê

dark

French: North

estaminet

tavern

Albanian

tym

smoke

Greek

thymíama

incense

Greek

Athamas, Athamant

husband of Nephélē

Bulgarian

tima

darkness

English

stymie

inability to see clearly; not to see a styme

Serbocroatian

tama

darkness

Sanskrit

támā

darkness

Tokharian

tamasse

dark

Kurdish

temiri

to go out (fire)

Kurdish

tamāi

darkness

Lithuanian

tamsā

darkness

Lettish

tumsa

darkness

 

Atharvan (Vedic). Name of a fire priest ātarsh fire. See Aith.

Atlas (Greek). He was condemned to support the Earth on his shoulders, and identified with the Atlas mountains, a high range in northwestern Africa. Atlas appears to be a borrowing, with metathesis, from Ibero-Romance altas (montañas); one cannot deny that the Ibero-Romance alto is at least as old as Ancient Greek; several Romance words have been borrowed by the Greek writers, i.e. south Italian ascilla "little wing" > Achilleus etc.); Atlas is not a Greek word, therefore the meaning a-tlas "the one that supports" is a Greek etymology given to a foreign word, a folk etym. that gave rise to the legend of Titan supporting the sky.

Attis (Phrygian), in Greek Papos, Zeus Papos : god, the father of male power, favorite of Cybele, the female power. From a word meaning father, grand-father :

 

Chaldean

et

father

Elamite

atta

grand-father

Phrygian

atta

father

Phrygian

Attis

a god

Hittite

attaš

grand-father

Akkadian

atein

grand-father

Greek

atta

grand-father

Tokharian

atäl

grand-father

 

Augē (Greek). Daughter of a king. See next word.

Augeias (Greek). Son of the sun. From a bas -g sunlight, daylight :

 

Touareg

eg

to burn

Sumerian

ug

day

Cushitic: Nubia

ug, ugu

day

Basque

egun

day

Basque

eguantz

dawn

Basque

goiz

morning

Basque

ego

the South

Albanian

jug

the South (Slavic id.)

Albanian

agim

dawn

Etruscan

aukēlōs

(in Hesychius) dawn

Greek

augē

dawn, sunlight

Greek

Aegyptos

Egypt, country to the South

Basque

eguztu

sun

Greek

aygoustos

August

English

august

the hot month ("month of emperor August" by folk etymology; the word preceded the emperor)

Spanish

agosto

August

Breton

eost

August

 

Aura (Greek). Was changed into a fountain. From Gr. aurà breeze.

Ausōn (Greek). Son of Ulysses and Circe, or son of Italos and Leucaria (Greek). See Asia.

Autumnus (Greek). Roman personification of autumn From a base t-n yellow, reddish, the colours of autumn :

 

French

tan

reddish-brown

English

tan

reddish-brown

French

tanin

tannin

Breton

tann

oak, for its foliage colour in winter

Breton

tane

red colour

French: Val d'Aoste

tanet

light brown

Italian

tanè

tawny

German: Val d'Aoste

tèni

globeflower (Trollius) a yellow buttercup

French (dialectal)

tanée

tansy

French

tanaisie

tansy

English

tansy

a yellow flower

Albanian

thanë,

cornouiller sanguin

Italian

tanacéto

tansy

Italian: Otranto

tanacéa

Great Tit

French (dialectal)

toné

yellowish

French (dialectal)

toni

brownish-yellow

French (dialectal)

tôni

Bombinator igneus, a toad with yellow belly

English

tony-hoop

Bullfinch

English

tawny

a reddish colour; Bullfinch

English

tone

tint

French: Aoste

aoutonner

to turn yellow (leaves)

French

automne

the golden season

Spanish

sanantonio

Robin redbreast

Portuguese: Azores

santo antonio

Robin redbreast

Galicia

ataia

Red Kite

Sardinian: Alguer

santaïni

october, the golden month

Galicia

autono

october

Spanish

otoño

autumn

English

autumn

the golden season

 

Aziz (Syriac). Assessor of the sun. See Asia.

Baal (Chaldean). Name of many deities of the Semitic peoples; also "the supreme god". See Belenos.

Babaktēs (Greek). Nickname of Bacchus. From a base b-b rounded :

 

Slavic

baba

various round objects; nanny

Czech

bábovka

a kind of pastry, German kugelhof

French

baba

a kind of pastry

Romanian

babiţă

belly

Greek

Babaktēs

Bacchus, for his pot-belly

Ukrainian

babik

Wren (roundish little bird)

Russian

babica

a kind of mushroom

Russian

baba, babuška

old woman, grand-mother

Romanian

babă

old woman, grand-mother

 

Bacchus.See Bakchos.

Baga (Persian). God. See Bog.

Bagaios (Phrygian). Name of Zeus in Phrygia. See Bog.

Bakchos (Greek). God of wine. From a base b-k rounded, for his pot-belly. Cf. his nickname Babaktès:

 

Albanian

bakanjar

pot-bellied

Greek

Bakchos

Bacchus, pot-bellied god of wine, cf. Buddha and Babaktēs (above)

Ukrainian

bakša

melon

Ukrainian

baklazán

egg-plant

Ukrainian

baklága

tub

Russian

baklága

bottle

Bielorussian

bakasik

plover (roundish shorebird)

Serbocroatian

bakva

Wren (roundish bird)

English

back

part of body

French

bac, baquet

large recipients

 

Balor (Gaulish). Mythical giant. From a base b-l big, very large :

 

Romanian

bal

large animal, monster

Albanian

belaur

large animal, monster

Catalan

baluern

large animal, monster

Gaelic Ireland

Balor

mythical giant

Galician

ballena

whale, enormous animal

French

baleine

whale

 

Batōn (Greek). Coachman of Amphiraos. His other names Schoinikos rush and Elatonos (from Elatè fir) indicate that a coachman used a whipping, swinging object. From a kinetic base b-t indicating a certain movement:

 

English: Lancs.

bat

beat the wings

English

bate

beat the wings, flutter

English

bat

a night flying mammal, a moth; wattle, swinging stick; (verb) blink the eyes

English

grassbat

grasshopper

English: N.Yorks.

bats

dark specks which appear floating before the eye when the sight is impaired; (slang) insane

French

bâton

bat: a swinging stick

French

batifoler

to romp

French

battre

English to beat, trash

French: Bray

battemare

wagtail

German (dialectal)

battervogel

butterfly

English

butterfly

an insect flying with a light movement. No kin to "butter"

 

Bel (Assyrian). Lord of the world, personification of the sun. See next word.

Belenos (Gaulish). A beneficent god. From a base b-l white :

 

Dravidian South

bel, vel

day, white

Dravidian

vela

sun

Canarese

belatu

to shine

Canarese

bel, vëlli

silver

Hebrew

bālagh

to shine

Arabic

balaga

to shine; bdaliga to be happy

Syriac North

balbis

to gleam

Berber

bellar

clear, glass

Assyrian

Bel

lord of the world: the sun personnified

Chaldean

Baal

the god par excellence

Welsh

Beli

god of the sun

Gaulish

Belinos, Abellio

god of the sun

French North

belle (la)

the moon

French (dialectal)

bélé

clear, bright

French (dialectal)

béléja

lightning

Italian: Canavese

bagliore

blinding light

Old Norse

bāl

big fire

English

balefire

bonfire

French: Valais

beaux (les)

fires lit on the mountains at St.Jean

Aromanian

bel

white

 

Beletrus cadrus (Gaulish). See Kadha.

Beli (Welsh). God of the Sun. See Belenos.

Bellōna (Greek). Goddess of the war. From a widespread base b-l to roar etc., war or battles being a noisy conflict:

 

English

bawl

to howl, roar

Danish

bolen

to roar

Old Norse

baula

to low; cow

Sardinian

baulai

to bark

Italian: Piedmont

baolé

to bark

French: Poitou

bouler

to cry

French

bwéler

to cry

French: H.Pyrénées

boueylacujan

Green Sandpiper

English

bull (to)

to chatter; lie, exageration (bullshit by folk etym., the original meaning of bull being lost)

English

bull

French bulle, edit of the pope

French

bulletin

a publication

German

bellen

to bark

German

widerbellen

gobbling (turkey)

English

bell, bellow

to roar

English: Scotland

bellum

noise, din

Welsh

bel

war: a noisy operation

Latin

bellum

id.

English: Orkneys

katabella

Buzzard

 

Bendis (Thracian). Artemis. See Venus.

Berham (Persian). Guardian spirit of fire. From a root b-r reddish:

 

Basque

bero

hot

Old Persian

berham

guardian spirit of fire

Breton

brut

hot

Spanish: Léon

aburar

to burn; Bercia aborar id.

Persian

bur

fire

Persian, Wakhi

būr, pūr

red-brown, honey colour

Persian

bur

Pheasant

Pamirs

vūr

red-brown

Ossetic

bor

yellow

Welsh

bore

morning

Serbo-Croatian

borast

reddish

French: Gascogne

bourret

light red; b.lim. bourés id.

French: B.Limousin

bourés

light red

Latin

burrus

bright red; red-haired

French

bordeaux, rouge-bord

maroon

Hebrew

burdgani

orange, brown (prob. an I.E. influx)

English

bread

German brot (position in paradigms uncertain)

French: occitan

bouire

rufous cow

French: Gascogne

aubourejà

to glow red

French: Languedoc

aubour

Laburnum

French: B.Pyr.

abor

id.

French reg.

auburon, aburon, hamburon

lactaire, a rosy yellow mushroom

Old French

auborne

auburn

English

auburn

dark reddish brown

 

Bog (Russian). God. From a base b-g big :

 

English

big

large

Persian

Baga

god

Greek

Bagaios

nickname of Zeus

Russian

Bog

god

Russian

bogac

wealthy man

Czech

bohatě

abundantly

Albanian

bugat

much

 

Boreas (Greek). The Northwind. From a base b-r dark :

 

Georgian

bori

fog

Modern Greek

vorras

North wind

Italian (dialectal)

bora

North wind

Albanian

borë

snow

Catalan

bora

mist

Portuguese

borra

mist

Spanish

borrar

to get dark

Greek

bóreas

North wind

French

bure

brown, grey, dark, blackish brown frock worn by members of a religious order; Dunnock (a dark bird)

Galician

aburado

blackened

 

Bormone (Gaulish). Goddess of thermal waters, eponym of Borbonne-les-Bains.

Boudha (Hindi). Nickname of Sidaharta Gantana, founder of Buddhism. Boudha, like Bacchus, is always represented as a pot-bellied figure. From a base b-d rounded :

 

Gaelic Scotland

budhag

bale of straw

Gaelic Scotland

budhaigir

Puffin

Middle Low German

buddich

swollen

Hindi

Buddha

nickname of Sidaharta Gantana, characterized, like Bacchus, by his pot-belly

Provençal

bouda

belly

Old French

bod, bodie, boudine

belly

English

body

the largest part of the anatomy

 

Burias (Kassite). The same of Greek Boreas.

Brigit (Gaelic Ireland). Daughter of Dagda, mother of poets, doctors and smiths. From a base br-g spotted :

 

Welsh

brych

spotted

Breton

brec'h

small pox

English Scotland

brichtie

Chaffinch

Gaelic Scotland

grille-brìghde

Oystercatcher

English Scotland

saint bridget's bird

Oystercatcher

Gaelic Ireland

Brigit

a mythological being; a woman's name

English: Isle of Man

bridgin

Oystercatcher

Gaelic Scotland

brid et var.

Oystercatcher

Breton

brizh

spotted

French: Cantal

bridjica

colour of jasper

 

Byblis (Greek). Nymph changed into a fountain. Name cognate to bubbling.

Cabires, see Kabeiroi.

Calliope, see Kalliop.

Catha, Cautha (Etruscan). A solar god. From a root k-d, k-t light-coloured, shining :

 

Dravidian

kādi

light

Ethiopia: Galla

hado

light

Egyptian

khad

white, shining

Arabic

hāga

to kindle, ignite

Greek

kádaros

clean, pure

Breton

sked

glitter, gloss

Lithuanian

skaidrus, gjedras

clear

Lettish

dzidrs

clear, clear sky

Persian

xadir

beauty

Gaelic: Ireland

cadhla

beautiful

Breton

kadr

beautiful; a component in Beletus cadrus Gaulish nickname of Mars by folk etym., beletus being understood "beautiful" instead "bellicous"

Gaulish

Beletus cadrus

nickname of Mars, by folk etymology, beletus being understood as "beautiful" instead of "bellicous"

Anc.Greek

Kadmos

father of Illyrius

Etruscan

cath

sun

Etruscan

Catha, Cautha

solar god

Sanskrit

katūh

glitter

Lithuanian

kaita

glitter

Lithuanian

kaitrus

warm

Greek

katreūs

an Indian bird, the Monal, a pheasant with magnificent colours

 

Cel, Cilens (Etruscan). God of Hell. See saoghal (in appendix).

Celadon (Roman). Shepherd clad with pale cloth. From a root s-l pale green:

 

Spanish

celadura

enamel

Romanian

ceadăriu

pale green

Turkish

çadir

(< substr. balk.) pale green

French

celadon

a pale green powdery colour

Polish

seledyn

celadon green

Latin

chelidonia

a powdery green plant

Italian: Calabria

helica

yarrow (a powdery green plant)

Ancient Greek

achilleios

yarrow

 

Cera (Gaulish). Beneficent god of the Celts. The same as Cerès, q.v.

Cerēs. Roman goddess of agriculture. She is represented with corn ears in her hands. From a base k-r yellow :

 

Greek

kirros

orange-yellow

Latin

cereus

yellowish

Latin

cerealis

cereal (not from ker- "to

grow"; to grow is not a characteristic of cereals but their yellow color is)

Latin

Cerès

"goddess of the harvest" (secondary, like Saturn from sator "the sower")

Latin

cerumen

earwax

French: Savoie

cerougne

celandine (a plant with orange-yellow latex)

French

cire

yellowish matter

Albanian

shqeri

the Slavs

Greek

kèrtès

yellow (wax)

Spanish

cártamo

safflower (cannot relate to Arabic qurtum to prune)

 

Cerberus. See Kerberos.

Cernunnos (Gaulish). A god with red-deer antlers. Being a hapax (attested only once), the name is evidently a misreading for Cervunnos, derived from the Latin Cervus red deer.

Chalyps (Greek). Son of Arēs, eponym of the Chalybes, the metal workers. From a base kh-lk copper-coloured :

 

Greek

chalkidikós

a variety of domestic hen (the ancestral races are often coppery)

Greek

chalkís

Glossy Ibis (coppery colour)

Mod. Greek

chalkokotta

id.

Mod. Greek

chalkókorone

Roller

Greek

halkyón

Kingfisher

Greek

chalyps

steel

Greek

Chalybes

metal workers

Latin

chalybeus

steel-colour (borrowed from Greek)

 

Cháris (Greek). A Grace, one of the thre attendants of Aphrodite. See next word.

Charites (Greek). The Graces, companion of Venus and Helios, personification of charm. See next word.

Chárōn (Greek). Son of Erebus, who ferried the souls of the dead across the rivers Acheron and Styx. Sojourn of sinners after death, hell: a blazing place. Certainly not from chairō "the lovable one"! Most beings or things pertaining to hell derive their name from heat or a black colour. From a base k-r fire, heat :

 

Assyrian

kārāru

fire, heat

Greek

karýstios

an insect that fire does not consume

Arabic

kari

to roast

Dravidian

kāri

to grill

Dravidian South

karun

crimson

Persian

xar

heat

Kurdish

kēruz

glowing coal

Persian

xariq

burnt

Persian: Sivand

xorg

glowing coal

Greek

Charon

son of Erebus

Ancient Greek

char

to shine

Ancient Greek

charra

joy; chaíro to rejoice

Ancient Greek

chárisma

grace

Ancient Greek

Cháris

one of the Graces; Charites the Graces

Ancient Greek

charmē

joy

French

charme

charm, attraction (from Greek, not from Latin carmen "song, magical words")

Basque

kar

flame

Basque

kara

colour

Basque

kaer

beautiful

 

Chárybdis. A whirlpool between Italy and Sicily that swallowed ships. It was facing Skylla. A derivation from Gr. charopós "bright look" is certainly not descriptive. See Horai.

Chelidōn (Greek). Wife of Polytechnē, changed into a swallow. From a base kh-l bicoloured, mostly black above, white below.

 

English

kell-bird

Guillemot (a black and white sea bird)

English

helligoog et var.

id.

Modern Greek

chelido

mottled

Italian: Bova (Calabria)

khelido

variegated

Modern Greek: Karpathos

chilios

bicoloured goat with a white belly (Rhodos chelios)

Modern Greek: Imbros

chilidos

goat with a longitudinal band on forehead

Modern Greek

cheliá (katsika)

goat with a white belly

Modern Greek

chelidi ga)

goat with a black back and white belly

Modern Greek

chelidóna

Swallow (black back, white belly)

Ancient Greek

Chelidōn

Wife of Polytechnē, changed into a swallow

Italian: Calabria

hilidona

Swallow; harvested maize cobs

 

Chinōē (Greek). Personification of snow. From a base k-n white, beautiful :

 

Gothic

skauns

beautiful

Finnish

kaunis

beautiful

Lithuanian

šaunus

splendid

Breton

kened

beauty

English

kindle

stir up a fire

Old Norse

kynda

id.

Swedish

skina

to shine

Swedish

sken

light

Greek

chion

snow

Armenian

jiun

snow

 

Chimaira (Greek). Monster half goat, half lion, spitting fire. From a base k-m light colour, day :

 

Egyptian

skm

grey haired

Greek

Kymē

a town in Chalcique

Greek

Kymōlos

one of the Cyclades islands known for its chalky soil

Modern Greek

kymolía

chalk

Modern Greek

kiméri,

kimourdzias

swan

Greek

Chimaira

a mythical monster

Czech

kmit

glimmer

Kurdish

xum

painted

Kurdish

xum-arreže

magpie

Hebrew

jōm

day

Arabic

jaum

day

 

Chlōris (Greek). Personification of spring. From a root chlor- green:

 

Ancient Greek

chloros

light yellow

Ancient Greek

chloeros

light green

Ancient Greek

chloris

Greenfinch,

Modern Greek

chlorida

Greenfinch

Modern Greek

chloros

pale

 

Chloē (Greek). Surnom de Dēmētēr, guardian of the green corn. From Gr. chloē green grass. See Ceres and Chlōris.

Chrónos (Greek). Personification of time, perpetually recurring in a circular movement. From a root k-r round:

 

Welsh

cor

round

Gaelic Ireland

cor

circular

Kurdish, Ossetish

xor

sun

Persian

hur

sun

Kurdish

xir

round

Polish

korowaj

wedding cake

Ancient Greek

chrónos

the time (cf. heure, hereunder)

Modern Greek

kora

city, cf. gorod chori village

Modern Greek

korós, khorós

a dance; choir, assembly

Bulgarian

horo

a dance

Romanian

hórâ

a dance; town; choir

Romanian

horáni

Swift (flies in circles)

French

heure

Spanish ora, hour: around the dial. Also Avesta yara, German Jahr, English year: notion of revolution

 

Cil, Cilens (Etruscan). God of hell. From a root s-l shining (See also saoghal (names for "world"), below.

 

Guanche

zelo

sky

Guanche

cel

to light

Etruscan

Cel, Cilens

god of hell

Ancient Greek

sélas

dawn, glare, light

 

Cimbres. See Kímbroi.

Circé, see Kirkē.

Cleopatra, see Kleopatra.

Clio, see Kleiō.

Cupido (Roman). Personification of desire. From Latin cupere to desire, cognate to Italian covidare, and French convoiter, English covet. The etymology of the Latin should looked for in the Romance words and not vice versa.

Daidalos (Greek). A mythical artist : One who is skillful with his fingers. A borrowing from Romance (Ibero-Romance dedo). Cf. Daktyloi "the fingers" a name given to some small spirits known for their skillfulness at manual work.

Daimōn (Greek). Subordinate gods, identified with the jinnee. See Demon.

Danaides (Greek). Daughters of Danaós. They were condemned to draw water perpetually with vessels that had no bottom. See Danaós.

Dan (Dorian Greek). Name of Jupiter among the Cretans. From a base d-n din :

 

Old English

dune

sound of bells

Danish

don

din

Old Norse

done

thunder

English

din

great noise

Greek (Dorian)

Dan

Jupiter in Crete

Lettish

dunēt

to drone

Czech

duněni

rumble, roar

Sanskrit

duni

din

 

Danaē (Greek). Daughter of Acrisius. See Danaós.

Danaides (Greek). The fifty daughters of Danaós (q.v.) who were condemned to draw water perpetually with vessels that had no bottoms.

Danaós (Greek). A descendant of Poseidōn. Provided water to the city of Argos. Plurial Danaoi the Danaāns, descendants of Danaós, whence the Greeks in general (Klein). Danaós appear to be identical with Tanaus, king of the Scythians who came to Argos and became blended with the Greeks. The name appears to be cognate to Don, Dniepr and Dniestr and the mythical river Tanais the Danube. Possibly cognate to Danaē, daughter of Acrisius, who appeared to be a mass of clouds, and to Hindi Danavas the clouds pierced by arrows which caused their blood to gush out of their wounds, thus being likened with water-filled clouds (see Parisot). Don is also the name of two rivers in France (Orne) and two in England, Donne a river in France (Puy-de-Dôme), Donnette (Orne), Dinan a small river affluent of the Loir (Sarthe), Dyenne (13e s. Dina) affluent of the Ource (Côte d'Or). Breton don "deep".

Dānū,  Danavas (Hindi), malicious spirits. See Danaós.

Dárdanos (Greek). Eponym of Dardania. Cf. the Dardanelles and the sea of Marmara, both having the sens of "scintillating" (Gr. mamairein to shine). From a root dard- "to tremble":

 

Basque

dardara

trembling; Swift (trembling flight)

Basque

durdurikatu

to sway

Romanian

dârdâi, dârdâesc

to tremble, vibrer, etc.

French

darder

to hurl, to flash a glance of; darder ses rayons the sun shot its beams (in fact: to shine strongly, sparkle)

Basque

dirdiratu

sparkle

French: Berry

darder

to tremble

French: Vendée

darder

oscillate, etc.

Italian nord

darder et var.

Sand Martin; Swift; Bee-eater (from their way of flying)

 

Daunus (Illyrian). See Faunus.

Deamha (Irish Gaelic). Devil, q.v.

Deiōn (Greek). Son of Eole, father of Nisos and other children.

Dēmētēr (Greek). Goddess of the fertile earth. From mètèr "mother", mētris "the native land", and akin to Albanian dhe "earth, soil, country", Illyrian dha "earth".

Demon (English, borrowed from Greek). From a base d-m to burn, black, red :

 

Assyrian

da'amu

black

Assyrian

dahāmi

to burn

Hebrew

adom

black

Arabic: Tunisia

dahma, adham

grey

Arabic

dāma

darkness

Akkadian

damu

blood

Berber

idamen

blood

Lithuanian

dėmė

blotch

Albanian

thimë

also: përthimë, perhimë, himtë grey

Albanian

dimër

winter

English

dim

dark

Serbocroatian

dim

smoke

Slovene

dimast

smoked

Lettish

dumai

smoked

Modern Greek

demonas

devil (certainly without relation with dais "banquet")

English

demon

devil, black monster in the traditions

French

démon

devil

German

dämmerung

twilight

 

Demonas (Greek). Demon. See preceding word.

Deuce (English). See Devil.

Dev (Persian). Devil. See Devil.

Devil (English). The deuce. Most devils are black monsters in the traditions. From a base d-v black :

 

Gaelic Ireland

dubh

black

Welsh

ddu

black

English

deuce

devil

Persian

dev

(Hindi id.) devil

Kurdish: Sorani

dew

demon

Persian: Sivand

dīf

demon

Gaelic Ireland

deamhan

devil

Gaelic Ireland

domhnall dubh

Rook

English

devil

devil, also Black Swift (cf. Italian diavolo, below)

English: Som.

devil's bird

Rook

Old English

diwell

"a bird called Coute and because of its blackness is called a Diwell" (liter. 1580).

English

devilfish

manta (all black above)

Gaelic Ireland

diabhal

devil

Spanish

diavolín

a petrel

Italian

diavolo

devil

Italian: Viterbo

uccello del diavolo

Martinet noir

Italian: Bagolino

cassa-diáol

Black Swift

French: Walloon

neur-diâl

Black Swift

Bulgarian

diavolica

Cormorant

Spanish

diablo

devil, also petrel

Spanish

pájaro diablo

Coot

Spanish

garza diablo

Glossy Ibis

French (dialectal)

diablo

Reed Bunting

Provençal

diablé de mar

Cormorant

French: Haïti

merle diable

a grackle

 

Dew (Kurdish). Devil, q.v.

Dezao (Kalasha). The god of creation. See Dios.

Di (Italian: Val Verzasca). God, also day. See Dios

Dia (Gaelic Ireland). God. See Dios.

Diabhal (Gaelic Ireland – loan-word). Devil, q.v.

Diable (French). Devil, q.v.

Diablo (Spanish). Devil, q.v.

Diafol (Welsh). Devil, q.v.

Diana (Roman). Goddess of the moon and hunting. From a base d-n, t-n daylight :

 

Tamil

tinam

day

Etruscan

tin

day

Etruscan

Tinia

a god

Etruscan

Thana

a mountain fairy

Albanian

Zana

a mountain fairy (probably identical to Diana

Hittite

zana

day

Sanskrit

dinam

day

Lettish

diena

day

Latin

Diana

goddess of the moon and hunting

Kurdish: Sorani

dinya

the world

Russian

den

day, polish dzien'

Serbocroatian

dān

day, daylight

English

dawn

daybreak

Albanian

ndajnate

at twilight

 

Diavolo (Italian). Devil, q.v.

Dof (Persian: Sivand). Devil, q.v.

Dio (Italian). God.  See Dios.

Diomēdēs (Greek). Son of Mars or Atlas; he fed his horses with human flesh. From Gr. mēdomai inventive.

Dionysos (Greek). God of wine. Perhaps formed with Di- (Italian Dio "God") and oínos "wine".

Dios (Spanish). God. Beneficient gods are associated with daylight, and were originally the daylight or the sun itself (we are all sunworshippers), contrarily to the devils, who are associated with black colour:

 

Persian: Sivand

jezeyl

polar star

Kalasha

Dezao

god the creator (the Kalashas are a non-Moslem people of northern Pakistan)

Lithuanian

dažai

dye, colour

Albanian

ndez

I light

Breton

dez

day

Latin

dies

day

Spanish

Dios

god

Greek

Dioskouroi

the sons of god (Castor et Pollux)

Sanskrit

Dyaus

(borrowing) god

Greek

thoós

shining

Greek

Theos

god

Phrygian

Tios

god

Etruscan

Thesan

dawn; a goddess

Etruscan

tešamit

the East

Gaelic Ireland

theas

the South

Gaelic Scotland

deas

the South; the right hand

English

dazzle

to glare

English

daze

stupefy

English

daisy

marvel; various flowers (not "from daeges ège "day's eye" because it opens its flower in the morning" (it does not, and "day's eye" is devoid of meaning)

Welsh

daio

combustion

French: Landes

ayoù

glimmer of fire, reverberation

French: Drôme

aio

joy

Albanian

diell

sun

Albanian

djelli (lule), lule

sunflower

Gaelic Scotland

dealradh

glitter, splendor

Gaelic Ireland

dealfa

beautiful

Lettish (poetic)

daile

beauty

French: Paris

dalleux

very elegant

Welsh

dieo

beautiful

Italian

Dío

God

Gaelic Ireland

die

day

Spanish

día

day; Dios God

English

day

day

Gaelic Ireland

Día

day

Greek

eudía

clear weather

Italian:

Val Verzasca

Di

day; god

Romanian

zi

day, daylight, life

Romanian

Zeu

God

Greek

Zeus

god (borrowed from Daco-Romance Z.eus with influence of Latin Deus; the Greek word is Theos)

Breton

deviñ

to burn

Breton

devez

day

Sanskrit

dava, diva

fire

Sanskrit

dhavală

white, to shine

Sanskrit

Dyava

personification of the sky

Latin

Diva

a goddess

Italian

diva

a famous singer (not "goddess" but "admired, dazzling woman", cf. the following)

Czech

dive

marvel, miracle

Czech

dívti

to admire

Polish

dziw

marvel

Polish

dziwer

damascening

Sanskrit

dipti

glimmer of fire

Sanskrit

dipyami

to shine

Welsh

Duw

god

Gaelic Ireland

domhan

world

French: Limousin

tuvo

spark

French (dialectal)

atuber

to light a fire

Albanian

tiv

day

Old German

Tiw

god

 

Diva (Roman). A goddess. See Dios

Divone (Gaulish). Like Bormone, goddess of thermal waters, eponym of Divona (Cahors, France).

Diws (Welsh). Devil, q.v.

Djinn (French) see Jinn.

Dōris (Greek). Daughter of the ocean, mother of the Nereids. From a root dor- river, Breton dur water, Portuguese Douro, Italian Dora, France Dore etc. river names.

Drōttin (Old Norse), Dryhten (Anglo-Saxon). The Lord. Cf. Swedish drottning queen.

Duw (Welsh). God. See Dios.

Dyaus (Sanskrit). Same as Deus.

Dyava (Sanskrit). Personification of the sky. See Dios.

Easta (Old English). A Teutonic goddess. See Asia.

Eastre (Old English). A Teutonic goddess of Spring. See Asia.

Echō. A nymph, personification of echo; Gr. ēchō sound, noise, see Jynx.

Egeria (Etruscan). A fountain nymph. See Aigaia.

El (Hebrew). God. See Allah.

Elah (Aramaic), see Allah.

Eléktra (Greek). An Oceanid, an Atlantid, or another name for Laodice, daughter of Agamemnon. From a base l-k light, glimmer :

 

Greek

leukos

shining, clear

Greek

Leukē

the White Isles, see Elysion

Latin

lux

(borrowing) light

Greek

ēlektror

bright sun

Greek

ēlektron

amber

Greek

Elektryōn

son of Perseus

Greek

Elektryōnē

daughter of the sun

Greek

lukaugēs

dawn, twilight

Greek

lynkourion

(with nasalisation) a kind of amber

Latin

langurium

id. (calque of Greek)

Greek

lykábas

light

 

Elektryōnē (Greek). A daughter of the sun. See Eléktra.

Elektryōn (Greek). Son of Perseus. See Eléktra.

Elf (English). A little sprite. From a root l-f, -lf having a notion of lightness:

Mod.Greek

lafrys

light

Old Norse

alfr

elf

English

elf

small preternatural beings given to capricious interference in human affairs

English

elfin

small and spritely

Anc.Greek

elaphrós

quick, agile

Anc.Greek

élaphos

deer

Anc.Greek

laphazō

to pant

German

laufen

to run

 

Elysion (Greek). Abode of the happy souls, land ofeternal spring, located West of the earth. From a base l-s shining :

 

Polish

lśniać

to shine

Czech

luzný

charming

Armenian

lusawor

shiny

Greek

Elysiōn (peíōn)

abode of the happy souls (champs Élysées). Also called Leukē. See Elektra.

 

Enō (Greek). Goddess of war. From ainós terrible (cf. Aineias).

Endymiōn (Greek). Son of Jupiter, lover of Phoebe, condemned to eternal rest. A borrowing from Romance (cf. French endormir).

Eneas, see Aineias.

Eole, see Aialos.

Eos (Greek). Personification of dawn. See Asia.

Ephialtēs (Greek). Pernicious giant, malicious spirit. From a kinetic base fl-t, f-lt :

 

English

flutter, flitter

to flap, fly about

English

fluttermouse

bat

German

fledermaus

bat

German

flattern

to flutter

German (dialectal)

nachtfalter

moth

German (dialectal)

falter, folter

butterfly

OLd High German

fifalter

butterfly

Greek

epiáltēs

butterfly, phantom

Greek

Ephialtēs

pernicious giant, malicious spirit

Gaelic Ireland

fáltóg

swallow

English

to flatter

to compliment

French (dialectal)

flatin

flame

 

Epidius (Greek). Fluvial god. From Romanian apâ water

Epionē (Greek). Companion od Asklēpios. From Gr. ēpios benevolent.

Epona (Greek). Goddess protector of horses. Gaulish epos horse, borrowed from Greek hippos, Romanian iapâ horse.

Erōs (Greek). God of love. From erōs, gen. erōtos sexual desire, evidently cognate to, and certainly a borrowing from Latin erectio elevation, swelling, erectus erect.

Erebos (Greek). The darkness surrounding the world. From a base r-b dark :

 

Hebrew

`erebh

twilight

Latin

creper

(borrowing) dark (> French crépuscule)

Semitic

ereb

twilight

Chaldean

Ereb

Europe: region of the twilight

Greek

Europē

(borrowing) Europe, the region to the west, region of sunset

Greek

erebus

dark; hell

Greek

Erebos

darkness surrounding the world

 

Eridanos (Greek). Mythical river. Identified with the Rhône, Italian Ródano, German Swiss Rotten.

Erynys (Greek). Vengeful goddesses. From orino to pursue.

Esculape (French), Aesculapius (Latin), see Aisklèpios.

Eshmun (Phoenician). Personification of the sky. See Ammon.

Esuna (Ombrian). A god. See Asia.

Esus (Gaulish). God of wealth and arts, favourable to commerce and money (Caesar), equivalent of the Roman Mercury. From Gallo-Romance aise ease, comfort, aisé to be well off.

Eurōpē (Greek). Daughter of Agenor or of Phoenix, or various divinities representing the earth. See Erebos.

Euros (Greek). Son of dawn of of Typhōn; the southwest wind. Most names of the wind indicated their provenance: Thracia, Iapyx, Boreos, Libonotos, Euronotos (south Europe), Euros (from Europe).

Fatum (Roman). Destiny decided by the gods, fate.

Fairy (English). Enchantress nymphs. The fairies are always charming and associated with beauty. A fairy tale is a marvelous tale. Fairies are gracious and beneficent. No kin to Fātum fate, a quite different being, but from a base v-r, f-r light-coloured, pretty :

 

Old French

vair

grey-blue, variegated

Romanian

var

chalk

English

vare-wigeon

Smew (a dainty, mostly white diving duck)

French: Normandy

vier, viar

Smew; weasel

Italian

vájo

vair, variegated; weasel

English

fairy

weasel; a dainty imaginary being

English

fairy-bird

Least Tern

English

fairy-tern

Gygis alba, a tropical white tern, particularly pretty

English

fair

beautiful

French: Périgord

vaour

beautiful, green

Basque

berri

new, fresh

Albanian

verzullim

shining, sparkling

Albanian

verë

Summer

Spanish

verano

Summer

 

Faunus (Roman). God of the countryside. Like the Grrek Pan it is represented with horns and goat's feet. Cf. Greek thaunos wildbeast.

Favonius (Roman). Personification of the west wind. See Phoebē.

Februus (Roman). God who presided over the "februa", purifications of the month of February (what are these "purifications" ?). From a kinetic base f-b to shiver :

 

French

fébrile

feverish

English

February

month of fevers and shivers

Latin

febris

fever. Latin februa is secondary to febris "fever ")

English

fever

a state of illness characterized by shivers

 

Fée (French). See Fairy.

Feretrius (Roman). Nickname of Jupiter. See Feronia.

Ferōnia (Greek). Goddess of the earth and the deads. Latin ferus wild. For t> f, cf. Greek thaunos - Latin faunus, Greek thermos - Spanish enfermo.

 

Gaelic Scotland

farrach

violence

Portuguese

fero

ferocious

Greek

Phēres

nickname of the Centaure

Greek

thēríon

wild animal, monster

German

tier

animal

French

farouche

savage

Italian

ferire

to hurt, Spanish herir

English

fear

danger etc.

Roman

Feretrius

nickname of Jupiter

Roman

Feronia

goddess of the deads

Spanish

ferre, alforrocho etc.

Goshawk

Arabic

horr (tair el-)

hawk

Egyptian

Horus

hawk-headed god

Catalan

furro

savage

French

furie

rage

Italian: Sardinia

ferrere

to hit

 

Find (Gaelic Ireland). Another name for Lug. From a base f-n light-coloured :

 

Gaelic Ireland

find

white, shining

Gaelic Ireland

Find

a divinity, see Lug

Gaelic Ireland

finne

whiteness

Gaelic Ireland

fionn

beautiful, blond (hair), clear

Gaelic Scotland

fionnag

Hooded Crow

Gaelic Ireland

finngeinte

Norwegian, Finn

English

Finn

the people of Finland (obviously named by Gaelic people)

 

Flora (Roman equivalent of Greek Chloris). Goddess of flowers. From a base fl-r white:

 

Aromanian

flor

white

Romanian

flore

blond; white goat

Romanian

Flore

blond-hair goddess

Spanish: Mexico

pascua florida

a white buzzard (Leucopternis)

Spanish

Florida

a peninsula with extensive white sand beaches

 

Furiae (Roman). The three avending spirits. Personification of the fury.

Gabia (Old German). The "giver", German geben to give.

Galatēs (Greek). Eponym of the Galates. From a base g-l tall, great, power, brave :

 

Assyrian

galla

tall, high

Amharic

Galla

a tall, black people

Bulgarian

goljam

tall

Hebrew

Goliáth

mythical giant

Kurdish: Sorani

gelē

many

Persian

galah

majestuous

Lithuanian

galia

power

Gaelic Ireland (o.liter.)

gally

to be empowered

Gaelic Scotland

Gael

Gaulish, Kelts: the braves, valiants

Gaelic Scotland

gall

(English id.) bravery

English

gallant

brave

 

Galáteia (Greek). Name of a Nereid. From a base g-l sunlight, shiny, white :

 

Sanskrit

gālā

(sun)light

Lettish

gailēt

to shine

Greek

Galáteia

a Nereid

Greek

galaxías

Milky Way

Greek

gala

lait

Greek (poetic)

glágos

lait

Welsh

gawl, gol

splendor, light, dawn

Welsh

gâl

shiny, beautiful

French (dialectal)

gaule

quality of what is charming

Old Provençal

galaubia

magnificence

Gaelic Ireland

gile

whiteness

Gaelic Scotland

geal

white, clear, beautiful, shiny

Gaelic Scotland

gealach

moon

Old Irish

gall

swan

Albanian

zgal

to clear up

Albanian

zgalem

tern (a white bird)

 

Ganyktor (Greek). Name of a singer in Dionysos' cortège going to India. From an acoustic base g-n to cry, sing etc. :

 

Latin

gannire

to bark

Frenchdialectal)

hanâkh

noise

French

hennir

to neigh

French(dialectal)

hañi

to complain, whine

French(dialectal)

déganner

to laugh at

Italian (dialectal)

gaín (far)

to whine (dogs)

Old French

gaïn

the warbling of birds

English Scotland

gan

make a fuss

English Scotland

gun

to gossip

 

Ganymēdēs (Greek). Young cup-bearer of the gods. See Ganyktor.

Gauanis (Greek). Ancestor of the Macedonians, brother of Perdikka (a bird). From a base g-v to call, especially of certain birds :

 

Spanish

gavia

Black-headed Gull

Catalan

gavina

Black-headed Gull

French(dialectal)

gaviner

to cry, whine

Provençal

gavanh

Kestrel

Italian, North

gavinèl

Kestrel

French(dialectal)

gabian

Black-headed Gull

 

Genie, see next word.

Genius, plur. Genii (Roman). The Genii of the Etruscans and the Romans were the fathers of the gods, thus more ancient. Some authors identified them with the Semitic Jinnee. The Romans Genii, however were auspicious spirits, preserving men of their misfortune, presiding over their birth and destinies. The word may well be cognate to Jinn. The guardian angel of christianism wer inspired from the Geniia. From Latin gens founder, family, race.

Geryoneus (Greek). Three-headed monster defending his cow herd. From Gr. geryō to shout. From a base g-r to shout, call :

 

Arabic

garida

to sing, warble

Hebrew

gàron

sound

Sanskrit

garal

praise

Sanskrit

garjami

to sound

Russian

garkat'

to shout

Lithuanian

išgarbinti

to sing someone's praise

Lithuanian

garsumas

tone

Breton

garsmen

cackling

Greek

gerys

voice

Albanian

gërje

rattle

Albanian

gërthas

I shout

German (dialectal)

gēret, gäred

goose

German (dialectal)

gerschwalbe

Swift

German

gerren

to shout

 

Gígās (Greek). Sons of the earth see next word.

Gígantos (Greek). Giants rival of the gods. sons of the earth. From gígās giant; cf. Lettish gāgans "giant".

God (English). God is something good, like daylight, spring, and the sun. From a root k-d, g-d good :

 

Kyrghyz

Kuda

god

Kurdish

Xuda

god

Old Slavic

Pagoda (with the Slavic prefix pa-)

the deified spring and the god of fine days. His wife was Simzerla, goddess of flowers

Old Slavic

godinu

pleasing

Old Slavic

godú

pleasing moment

Swedish

Gud

English God, German Gott

German

gut

English good

Lettish

gods

honour

Greek

agathós

good

Greek

gythos

joy

Greek

getheō

to rejoice

Greek

hēdō

to rejoice, to charm

 

Goren (Basque). God. From a base g-r high:

 

Hindi

giri

montain

Basque

gora, gorai

high

Basque

goren

the highest, God

Guanche

acoran

the sublime, God

Berber

ager

to be bigger than

Welsh

goreu

the best

Ukrainian

gúra

hill

 

Gott (German). See God.

Graces. Romance translation of Greek Chárites.

Graikos (Greek). Eponym of the Graikoi of Epeiros. Borrowed from Latin Graecus Greek.

Gud (Swedish). See God.

Gygēs (Greek). Sea giants with a hundred arms, brothers of Aigaiōn. They are always associated with the sea. See Ogygēs and Gígantos.

Hadēs (Greek). Hell: a dark place. From a base -d dark :

 

Gaelic Scotland

udlachd

gloom

Gaelic Scotland

oidhche

night

Gaelic Ireland

odhar

dark

Gaelic Scotland

odharag, odhrag

Cormorant

Welsh

huddygl

soot

Berber

ehad, ifad

night

Bulgarian

ad

(Serbocroatian, Russian id.) hell

Greek

iodēs

violet

Lithuanian

juodas

black

Romanian

iad

hell

Greek

hadēs

hell

Latin

ianthina

purple-blue

French: Valais

antziane

gentian

French

gentiane

a dark blue flower

Romanian

ginţură

gentian

 

Harbe (Kassite). A god. Cf. Lithuanian garbė glory.

Harpē, Harpasos, Harpyai (Greek). The Harpies, rapacious monsters. From Gr. arpazto ravish:

 

Spanish

raptar

to rob

French

rapt

abduction

French reg.

rapia

dérober, FEW 10:63

English

rap

to strike; (arch.) transport with rapture

Romanian

răpi

ravir

Spanish

rapino

bird of prey

Spanish: Asturias

rapuñar

to snatch with hands

Catalan

rapinya

action of snatching

Aroumanian

arăpeáre

to carry off

Italian

arrapare

to grab

Anc.Greek

arakos

(p>k) a bird of prey

Etruscan

harog

a bird of prey

Anc.Greek (Macedonia)

arakit

ravish (seize)

Italian: Calabria

arrapa

to seize by the hair

Provençal

arapa

to grab

Spanish: Navarra

arrapa-pájaros

bird of prey

Spanish: Navarra

garrapiña

bird of prey

Basque

arrapari

bird of prey (< Romance)

French: Gascony

arpadoū

ravisher

Italian

arpa, arpía, arpella

bird of prey

Catalan

arpella

bird of prey

French

harpaye

bird of prey

French: Dauphiné

harpens

Eagle Owl (probably in tales intended to frighten)

Provençal

arpo

claw

French: Gascony

arpàd

handful

Provençal

arpi

seized

Provençal

arpian

bird of prey

French: Anjou

arpion

ergot

Provençal

artioun

claws

French (a term in hunting)

arpe, harpe

claw

French

harpe

musical instrument (from its shape, not "because it is played with crooked fingers" as in Klein)

German

arpel, erpel

male Mallard (from its curved feathers)

Catalan

arpelles, árpies, arpiot

hoe

Italian: Lucania

arpai

an implement with long iron teeth

Anc.Greek

harpē

sickle, hook

Anc.Greek

harpazto

to ravish

Anc.Greek

harpē, harpasos

a predatory winged monster, harpy

Mod.Greek

arpi

bird of prey.

 

Helénē (Greek). Luminous goddess, sister of the Dioscouroi. From a root hel- "shine":

 

Arabic

halla

to shine

Hebrew

halal

id.

Akkadian

elèlu

to be shiny

Anc.Greek

hēlios

sun; heilē heat of the sun

German

hell

clear

English

hell

a blazing place (the explanation "that which hides" is unsuitable)

Latvian

elle

hell

Albanian

hüll, yll

star

Anc.Greek

Hellás

city in Thessaly (the white one) whence Hellènes a Thessalian tribe and, thereafter, the Greeks

Anc.Greek

Helénē

daughter of Zeus

 

Hēmera (Greek). Goddess of daylight. See Merops.

Hèphaistos (Greek). God of fire. From a base f-s fire, light, red :

 

Greek

phaos

light

Greek

phōs

flame, light etc.

French

face

figure, aspect, face;

English

face

the pale part of the body; without possible connection with Latin facere "to make do" (as in Klein)

Greek

Hēphaistos

god of fire

Greek

Phaethon

Hèlios or the sun

Modern Greek

fotia

outbreak of fire

Greek

phepsalos

hot coal, spark (ts>ps, cf. phassa --> phaps pigeon)

Modern Greek

papoufos

Robin redbreast (pap- "breast")

Albanian

fis

blood

 

Hēra (Greek). Sister and wife of Zeus, queen of the gods; identified with the Roman Juno. Related to Greek hērōs "defender, protector, hero".

Hēraklēs (Greek). Old Latin forctus, dial. horctus, horctis "good" (Klein), cognate to force.

Hercules. Roman name of Hēraklēs.

Hermēs (Greek). Son of Zeus and Maia, god of commerce and messenger of the gods. see Hermaphroditos.

Hermaphróditos (Greek). The root of this word may be maphr-  related to the Alpine dialect mahlè (lateral fricative pronounced like Welsh ll "hl") an animal that is neither male nor female. By folk etymology, the word has been divided in Hermēs "god of commerce" and Aphródítē "goddess of love".

Hipparis, Hippurios (Greek). Fluvial spirits. From Romanian apâ water. Cf. Epidius.

Horai (Greek). God of the seasons. See Chrónos. Symbolizes the perpetual return of the season in a circular movement. From a base -r-, k-r round :

 

Kurdish, Ossetish

xor

sun

Persian

hūr

sun

Kurdish

xir

round

Greek

Chárybdes

a whirlpool between Italy and Sicily

Modern Greek

kora

town

Greek

Kora

a name for Persephonē

Modern Greek

korós, khorós

dance, choir, assembly

Bulgarian

horo

a dance

Greek

hōros

time of day, hour, year (revolving time)

Latin

hora

hour

Romanian

horă

round: a kind of dance; town

Dravidian

irru

round

Welsh

eirinen

pupil of the eye

Hittite

Arinna

the sun (the round celestial body, cf. Apollōn and Kirkē)

Bengali

arun

the sun; Arunachal Pradesh: land of the rising sun

Berber

aru

egg

Basque

erru

egg

Basque

aro

circle

Hittite

arinna

goddess of the sun

 

Horus (Egyptian). Hawk-headed god. See Ferōnia.

Hudha (Kassite). A god. Cf. Kirgiz Kuda.

Hy, Hyj (Albanian). God, personification of the blue sky. See Jupiter.

Hyákinthos (Greek). A mythical being. He was killed by Apollo, or by Boreas, or Zephyros. He probably was a personification of the sky. From his blood was born a blue flower (an iris).

 

Akkadian

uknū

blue

Greek

knéphas

twilight, darkness

Greek

kyanos

dark blue; Blue Rock Thrush

Greek

kynaigynthos

Blue Titmouse

Greek

hyákynthos

a blue precious stone and various blue flowers

 

Hymenaios (Greek). Goddess of marriage. From hymēnai, gmēn refrain sung at marriages. From a base h-m, g-m clamour :

Russian

gam

clamour

Russian

gom

noise, cry, barking

Swedish

gamman

jubilation

Greek

gmēn

a wedding song

Greek

hymnos

song of glory, > latin hymen

 

Iapetos. Greek name of Japheth, q.v.

Ichor (Greek). Blood of the gods. See Asia.

Ifrit (Arabic). A spirit, a djinn. From a base fr-t indicating a mouvement or something immaterial:

 

Italian

frotta

crowd

French

frotter

to rub

English

fret

ornament, cf. frill, above

French

fretin

multitude of small fish

French

frétiller

to wiggle

Gaelic: Ireland

friotáil

fluttering

Arabic

Ifrit

a spirit

 

Ikaros (Greek). Son Daedalos. He swayed in the air. From a kinetic base (s)k-r indicating certain mouvements :

 

English

scurry

to hurry

Swedish

skura

to rush

Greek

skairein

to skip, dance, bound

Greek

Ikaros

a mythical being who swayed in the air

Italian

scuriata

whip

English

scourge

whip, plague

English

scour

to pass over quickly; récurer

 

Illyris (Greek). Eponym of the Illyrians whose name derives from the river Ill, the region they inhabited.

Ilu (Akkadian). God, see Allah.

Imm (Egyptian). Ammon, god of the sky. See Ammon.

In. Eponym of the Ionians

 

Gaelic Ireland

uaine

green

Breton

yen

cold, sad

Ancient Greek

ios

verdigris

Ancient Greek

íōn

violet-colour; violet (the flower)

Ancient Greek

ionís

a shore bird: Kingfisher

Ancient Greek

oenas

pigeon

Hebrew

yon, yonah

(borrowed from Greek) pigeon

Lettish

ēna

shade

Ancient Greek

Iōnion Pélagos

the Ionan Sea (dark blue)

Albanian

Jon

the Adriatic Sea

Ancient Greek

Iōnía,

a region bordering the Ionan Sea

Hindi

Yūnān

Greece: region to the setting sun

Old Persian

Yaunā

id.

Sanskrit

Yavanah

id.

Hebrew

Yāwán

Egypt

Akkadian

Yāwamu

Egypt

 

Iris (Greek). The rainbow personified. From a chromatic base –r green, yellow:

 

Gaelic Ireland

ur

green

Welsh

ir

green, blooming

Ancient Greek

iris

rainbow, a precious stone, a flower

Armenian

awr

day, arot dawn

French

aurore

dawn

Berber: Kabyle

arura

dawn

Galice

aureal

Oriole

Catalan

oriol

Oriole Agaricus aurantius (a mushroom)

Italian north

oriöl

Oriole

French

oriol et var

Oriole

Romanian reg.

oriular

Oriole

 

Ishtar. Chief goddesss of the Assyrians and Babylonians, counterpart of Astartē, q.v.

Itys (Greek). Daughter of Aedōn, changed into a goldfinch. Probably an imitative name.

Iu (Etruscan). God.

 

Romanian

havaiu

sky-blue

Turkish

havaya

(pre-Osman substratum) blue

Kurdish: Sorani

hawīn

summer

Welsh

hâf

summer

Old English

haewen

blue

English

heaven

sky

English: Scotland

hyaw, haw

bluish

Old English

hīew, hīw

colour, appearance, form

English

hue

dye

Swedish

hy

complexion

Albanian

Hy, Hyj

God, divinity (deified blue sky)

Etruscan

Iu

God

Latin

Jupiter

god of thunder; for the second element  see Jupiter

.

Iupiter, see Jupiter.

Iynx (Greek). Daughter of Pan, changed into a bird. From a base y-k to call, to neigh etc. :

 

French (dialectal)

hiper

to call from afar

English

hip hip

call of sportsmen

Spanish

hipido

call

Spanish

hipar, jipar

tumult, noisy playing

Greek

hyperionís

a hawk, probably the Black Kite (has a neighing call)

Greek

hypotriórchēs

a hawk

Greek

hippē, sippē, sittē

Green Woodpecker (has a neighing call)

Greek

hippos

horse

Greek (Eolian)

hikkos

horse

Latin

equus

(borrowing) horse

Etruscan

ikkas

horse

English(dialectal)

hickymouse

Blue Tit

English(dialectal)

equah, hickwaw

Green Woodpecker

Englishdialectal)

equal and var.

id.

French (dialectal)

yégass

id.

Greek

Pēgasos

(borrowing, with prosthetic /p/, or misreading Y for P) winged horse

Catalan

yegua

mare

Tokharian

yuk, yakwe

horse

Gaelic Ireland

each

horse (OE "eoh" horse is a misreading for O.Irish ech)

English

yuckfit

Common Snipe

German (dialectal)

yokkein

Wood Owl

German (dialectal)

juchzen

to call, rejoice

Greek

yachē

call

Greek

ianchos

"call of the Bacchantes "

Gaelic Scotland

éigh

call

Greek

iygē, iygma

call

Greek

iynx

daughter of Pan, changed into a bird, the Green Woodpecker

Modern Greek

ixos

sound, noise

Greek

ēchō

sound, noise, whence English echo

 

Ized (Persian). Deification of the sun. See Asia.

Janus (Roman). God of the beginnings, personification of the beginning of the year. The root of this name, like January, the first month of the year, is nothing else than the latin unus and the Indo-European uno, ein etc. i.e. the number one, the first. Figuratively janus door: the opening of, the entrance to, since Janus is the opening of the year.

 

Indo-European

un, uno, ein

one

Greek

neo

new

Lettish

jauns

young

Lithuanian

jaun

young

English

young

 

Gaelic Scotland

òg

young

Gaelic Scotland

ògmhios

June

French

jeune

young

Italian

giovanno

young

Latin

Jovis

brother of Juno (see below)

Latin

Janus

god of the beginnings

English

January

the first month

German

Juni

June: the beginning of summer, the fine season

Latin

Juno

a beautiful goddess (deification of June)

Catalan

xunyo, san xoan

June

French

Saint-Jean (feux de)

bonfires lit at Saint-Jean in June

 

Japheth (Hebrew). The youngest of the three sons of Noah, brother of Shēm and Kham, q.v. Giant of the first ages, eldest son of the sky and earth, father of the peoples of the Occident. A relation with Hebrew yépheth "enlargement" (Klein) does not explain the name. Owing to the evident relation of Shām and Kham to colours, Japheth could also relate to a colour, his blond hair. From a Semitic root s-f yellow:

 

Arabic

safar

yellow

Arabic: Liban

asfar

yellow

Arabic

saffāra et var.

Oriole

Pers.: Sivand

šafaq

dawn

Kurdish: Sorani

šefeq

twilight

Tajik

isparaki

a yellow colour

Hebrew

Jafeth

the the blond-haired one

Kurdish

safra

bile

Kurdish

sufrah, sifyr

copper

 

Jason. Son of Aisōn, q.v.

Jehovah. See Yahweh.

Jinn, plural jinnee (Semitic). Malicious spirits. From Arabic jinni spirit. See also Genius.

Jovis, Diovis (Roman). Brother of Juno (wrongly assimilated with Jupiter). From a root juv- young. See Janus.

Jupiter (Roman, probably of Etruscan origin). God of thunder. Formed with piter (see below) and Iu god, from a base h-v blue, the heaven (see Iu and Hy). And piter from a base p-t noisy, very common in Romance languages :

 

French

péter

detonate etc.

Latin

Jupiter

(borrowing) god of thunder

French

pétard

noise

Galician

petar

to make noise

French: Languedoc

pétaret

noisy

 

Jynx, see Iynx.

Káberioi, Káberios. Greek name for the Semitic gods of fertility and wealth, also called the great gods. Beryt was a Phoenician god, father of Sydyk (the sky) and Esmoun (the fire); the Egyptian Kabirs were the sons of Fta and Hathor. From Semitic kabir great.

Kadha, Kaudha (Etruscan). See Catha.

Kadmos (Greek). Father of Illyrius. See Catha.

Kalliopē (Greek). Muse of eloquence. Literally "beautiful voice". From a base k-l to call :

Amharic

kal

voice

Hebrew

kol

voice

Gaelic Ireland

cal

voice

English

call

cry, shout

Greek

kaléō

to call

Greek

Kalliopē

muse of eloquence

Flemish

kallen

to speak

 

Kalu (Etruscan). God of hell. From a base k-l to burn :

 

Dravidian South

kālu

to burn

Akkadian

qalu

to burn

Hebrew

qālā

to burn

Arabic

kha'al

to light

Etruscan

Kalu

god of hell

Albanian

kall

I light

 

Kalypsō (Greek). Nymph who attracted and concealed the castaways. From kalypto, to hide.

Kamulla (Kassite). A goddess, protector of horses. Cf. Lithuanian kumelé horse.

Kándaios (Greek). Nickname of Ares. See next word.

Kándalos (Greek). Son of the sun. From a base k-nd white :

 

Sanskrit

kandrá

shining

Baluchi

kand

Shelduck

Persian: Sangesari

kandus

yellow

Sanskrit

kancana

golden

Albanian

shkendej

to shine

  Anc.Greek

kándaros

live coal

Anc.Greek

Kandaios

nickname of Ares

Welsh

cant

shiny

Spanish

candela

candle

French

chandelle

candle

French: Aude

chandoulo

spark

Breton

skendilig

House Martin, a swallow with white rump

Spanish (dialectal)

rabicandil

Wheatear (striking white rump)

Arabic: Morocco

kandil

(from Romance) light

Arabic: Morocco

kandil el-behar

Kinfisher ("light of the water")

Greek

Kándalos

(borrowing) son of the sun

Gaelic Ireland

caindeal

candle

Breton

kantol

candle

English

candle

candle

 

Kapys (Greek). Ancestor of Eneas (see Aineias) who was a dreaded hero; Kapys is the catcher or hunter; from an Etruscan word meaning "falcon", root kap- to catch:

French

capturer

to catch

Romanian

copoiu

hunting

English

cop

to catch

Serbocroatian

kupiti

to catch

Czech

chopiti

to seize; pochop Goshawk

Swiss German: Valais

käpfy

Goshawk

Russian

kapiv

hunting

Ukrainian

xapati

to catch

Persian

xapak

hawk

lappon

hapak, hapke

hawk

Basque

kapelari

hawk, kabidoi hawk, hook

 

Kassandra (Greek). The most beautiful daughter of Priam. See Kassiopē.

Kassiopē (Greek). Mother of Andromeda, a superb woman changed into a constellation. Literally "beautiful face". From a base k-s to shine, beautiful :

 

Kurdish

koz

hot coal

Aramean

kaysa

to shine

Aramean

kasū

glitter

Khinalug

xaš

moon

Greek

Kassandra

the most beautiful daughter of Priam

French (dialectal)

cassanèl

pretty

French (dialectal)

acassà

pretty

Kurdish

kasīl

beautiful

Persian: Sivand

xās

beautiful

Kurdish: Sorani

xoš

beautiful, good

Lithuanian

kaistu

to heat

Lettish

skaistums

beauty

Greek

Akastē

one of the Oceanides

Albanian

kajstë

white clay

Lithuanian

kaistra

heat, kaitrus hot

Sanskrit

kastrala

carbuncle worn by Vishnu

Greek

kaustós

burnt, > caustic

Greek

kautēr

cauterizing iron

Greek

kaïein

to burn

Arabic

kaii

to burn

Arabic

kasdir

tin

Greek

kassiteros

tin

Greek

Kassiopē

mother of Andromeda, superb woman changed into a constellation

Arabic

kazed, kazir

Purple Swamphen

Greek

Kastōr

a star; one of the Dioskouroi, often associated to white colour

Greek

Kastalía

a nymphe; the fountain of the Muses

Portuguese

casto

pure

French

chaste

pure

 

Kastalía (Greek). Nymph changed into a fountain, or the fountain of the Muses. See Kassandra (enter). See Kassiopē.

Kastor (Greek). One of the Dioskouroi, often associated to the white colour, the shining twins of the sky. See Kassiopē.

Katreus (Greek). An Indian bird, perhaps mythical, identified as a kind of pheasant by later commentator. See Kadha.

Kaudha, Katha (Etruscan), see Kadha.

Kelainō (Greek). Name of a Harpy, contributing to thunderstorms. From a base k-l dark :

 

Sanskrit

kalah

dark blue

Greek

kalaïnas

blue-green

Greek

Kelainō

name of a Harpy

Modern Greek

kalaïs

turquoise

Modern Greek

kalaï

tin

Greek

kalijá

indigo

Albanian

kaltër

dark blue

 

Kenchreios (Greek). "A fluvial god" is none other than the teal (a duck) kenchrítès.

Kentauroi (Greek). Monsters half man half horse; they were wild, violent, powerful brutes. Neither tauros bull, nor kenteo to prick are descriptive of them. They should rather be regarded as big, powerful beings, from a base k-nt convexe etc. :

 

Welsh

cant

band, group

French

canton

an administrative division

French

chante (merle etc.)

component in oronymic names

French (dialectal)

chanton

a rounded hill

Albanian

kandóre

angular stone

Spanish

cantero

large stone

 

Kérberos (Greek). A many-headed dog, born to Typhon and Echidna. Cf. Sanskrit karbarāh a mythical dog watching over the black empire of hell at the mouth of the Acheron. Like most infernal beings, they should be black. From a base k-rb black :

 

Greek

kórbu, korbiko

black

Greek

korba

black mule

Greek

korbo

black billy-goat

Albanian

korb

crow, shadow

Albanian

korbë

unhappy

Albanian

korbec

black dog

Romanian

corbos

black

Aromanian

corbu, gorbu

noir

Romanian

corbeascâ

a variety of grape

Romanian

corb

crow; a black fish Corvina nigra;black horses or dogs

 

Keyx (Greek). Son of Lucifer and the nympha Philonis, changed into an aquatic bird.

Khām (Hebrew). One of Noah's sons, after whom the Chamitic or Hamitic peoples were named. See Kimmérioi.

Khuda (Kurdish). God, q.v.

Kímbroi (Greek). Kymry, people of the West or the North. See Kimmérioi.

Kimmérioi (Greek). The Cimmerians People of the Chersonese peninsula. From a base k-m dark:

 

Icelandic

skum

darkness

Swedish

skum

dusk, dim

Danish

skummel

dark

Lettish

skumjas

sadness

Hebrew

Kemet

ancient Egypt (land of the blacks)

Greek

(al) Kimitē

Egypt according to Herodote

Egyptian

km

black

Hebrew

Ham, Kham

son of Noah: the black one (see Sem)

Greek

Kimmerios Bósporos

the Bosphorus

Greek

Kimmerioi

people of Sarmatia, a northern country; > russian Krim Crimea

Greek

Kímbroi

Cimbres and Cymru, peoples of the North; does not imply relationship (cf. Skýthos Scyths and Scots)

Italian

cimerio

dark

Spanish.: America

cimarrón

wild; also: a fugitive slave (original meaning: the dark coloured one; later the term took the adjectival sense of "wild").

Romanian

cimru

a legendary bird

Persian

kamar

mythical bird that hides the sun and create darkness (the darkness personified)

Kurdish

qamar

grey

Latin

cymatilis

navy-blue

 

Kirkē (Greek). Daughter of the sun. From a base k-rk round (see also Horai) :

Sumerian

kurkur

circle

Basque

kürkürü

circle

Anc.Greek

Kirkē

daughter of the sun

Old Gaelic: Ireland

cercenn

circle

French

carcan

necklace, etc.

Welsh

cwrc

roundness

Welsh

cyrch

circle

Gaelic: Ireland

curca

crest, chignon

 

Kirnis (Lithuanian). God of the cherry trees. From a base k-rn red :

 

Albanian

koranik

a dish made with blood

Modern Greek

koróno

to catch fire

Lithuanian

Kirnis

god of the cherry trees

Gaelic Ireland

carnaid

red

Spanish

encarnado

flesh-coloured

English

carnation

flesh coloured; pink (a flower)

 

Klēdōn (Greek). Goddess of omens. From a base l-d, kl-d, l-t to sing, speak etc.

 

Gaelic Ireland

liudan

to sing

Breton

lud

luth

Swedish

ljud

son

English Scotland

leed

language

Old English

loden

language

German

lied

sound

English

lute

a string instrument

French

luth

lute

Greek

liuthon

to sing

Greek

Klēdōn

goddess of omens

Greek

Kleiō

muse who invented the cithara

Greek

kleien

to glorifiy, celebrate, make famous

 

Kleiō (Greek). Muse of history, the glorious, invented the cithara. See preceding word.

Kleopatra (Greek). One of the daughters of Boreas. Literally "famous through her ancestors". See Kleiō.

Klitoria (Greek). Daughter of a river. Cf. Klitumnus, an Ombrian river.

Kokalos (Greek). King of Icane in Sicily. He burned Minos in hot water. A borrowed word, cf. German kochen to cook. cf. also the French surname Coquoz cook.

Kōkytos (Greek). An infernal river. From kōkyein to weep. From a base k-k to cry :

 

Lithuanian

kaukiūti, kiauksiu

howl

Lithuanian

šiaukiu

shout

Lettish

kaukt, saukt, čaukstu

howl

Greek

kúo

to lament

Gaelic Scotland

ciùcharan

complaint

Old Norse

kjökra

moaning

Albanian

skuhrani

plaintive call

Sanskrit

kočāmi

cry

Armenian

kawšem

cry

Czech

skučeni

mooing

Lettish

kūkot

to call

Albanian

kukas

I call

Sanskrit

kókaH

wolf

Modern Greek

skoúximon

shrill call

 

Kombē (Greek). Daughter of the fluvial god Asopos. Was metamorphosed into a dove. A borrowing from Genovese cûmbo, coombo, cömbo, cumbu "dove".

Kora, Korē (Greek). Another name for Persephonē (the sun). See Horai.

Ktō (Greek). Daughter of the sea. From a base k-t convex :

 

Greek

kētos

any enormous animal

Ukrainian

kyt

whale

Ukrainian

kytka

tuft, crest

Serbocroatian

kita

tuft, crest

Breton

kitern

top of head

 

Kuberos (Sanskrit). See Káberioi.

Kuda (Kirgiz). God, q.v.

Kybelē (Greek). Great goddess in Phrygia, goddess of fertility, honored in caves (kybelē).

Kyknos (Greek). Son of Poseidon, turned into a swan. See Kōkytos.

Lakshmi (Hindi). Personification of beauty. She was born in a sea of milk. From a base l-k white, white-spotted :

 

Albanian

lacan

white (billy-goat)

Hindi

Lakshmi

personification of beauty

Latin

lac, lactis

milk

Persian

lakkah-dār

spotted

Arabic

lākh

spot

Lithuanian

slākas

spot

Welsh

lle, llecyn

spot

German

lege

spot

Romanian

alac

blond

Romanian

alaci

variegated

Romanian

lapte

milk

Italian

latte

milk

French

laiton

brass

Greek

Lēto

daughter of Phoebe

 

Lampētia (Greek). Daughter of the sun, sister of Phaèthusa. From a base l-mp shining :

 

Modern Greek

lampros

shining

Modern Greek

lampri

Easter

Greek

lampē

light

Greek

Olympos

the white mountain

Italian

lampa

lamp

Galician

lampo

pure

Spanish

relámpago

lightning

Sardinian

lampadas

June (season of lightnings)

Sardinian.: Nuoro

lampare

to shine

 

Lara (Roman). A garrulous goddess. From  root lar- "garrulous":

 

Albanian

loroj

howler

Breton

lorc'h

fright

Talysh

louroun

Tawny Owl

Kurdish

lurin

to howl

Armenian

lor

Quail

Persian

lāruh

Quail

Hindi

lahura

Quail

Albnian

laurë

an imaginary animal the comes of the water at night, utters a cry, and dives again

Albanian

laureshë

Skylark

Albanian

laurohem

to win a prize (i.e. acclamation)

Latin

laurea

glory (hereunder)

Franç.

laureat

laureate (the one who is applauded). From Lat. laureatus the explanation of which "adorned with laurel" is a folk etym.

Old Spanish: Navarra

aplaurar

to speak

English

lore

learning, knowledge

German

lehre

teaching, doctrine

Latin

Lara

a garrulous goddess

Albanian

lorza (flet si)

he speaks like a parrot

Old French

lori, louri

parrot

English

lory

parrot (said to be of Malay origin; however, no such word has been recorded in Malay languages except for an obscure noury which is probably a corruption of English lory)

Spanish

loro

parrot

Italian: Liguria

loro

parrot

English: Scotland

sclore

chat, gossip

Spanish

llorar

to cry

 

Lares, Lar (Roman, of Etruscan origin). Sons of Lara; tutelary spirits of households, towns, streets, roads and sea, identified in part with the Manes. From Etruscan laris "pleasant". Probably not connected to Larva q.v.

Larunda (Roman). Sabine goddess of the dead. Cf. Larva.

Larvae (Roman). Malicious spirits, spectres, phantoms. From larva mask.

Lasa (Etruscan). Nymph-like deity, goddess of love. Cognate to lascivus playful, lewd, dissolute. From a kinetic base l-s :

 

English

loose

lax, flimsy; promiscuous

Breton

laosk

lax

French

lâche

flabby, soft; coward

Latin

lascivus

playful

French (Aoste)

leusse

woman of easy virtue

English

lust

sexual desire

 

Lases (Roman). An ancient form of Lares (Parisot). Little gods known for the rapacity at receiving gifts of grease at road crossings, this perhaps by folk etymology after lardus lard.

Laverna (Roman). Goddess of the thieves. From a kinetic base l-b, l-p:

Greek

labē

action of seizing

Akkadian

lābu

lion

Assyrrian

labbu

lion

Hebrew

labi

lion

Ugaritic

lb'

lion

Gaelic Scotland

lamh

attack

Gaelic Scotland

lamhraig

skua (robs other birds of their prey)

Latin

Laverna

goddess of the thieves

Greek

lobē

a hawk

Bulgarian

lobec

hunter

Spanish

lobo

wolf

Russian

lovit'

to catch

Czech

lev

lion

Albanian

luan

lion

Greek

léōn

lion (formerly occured in the Balkans)

German

löwe

lion

Basque

lapur

thief

Czech

lapati

to catch

Czech

loupež

plundering

French

loup

wolf

 

Lēda (Greek). Wife of Zeus, mother of the Dioscouroi. Cf. Lycian lada "wife, mother" and English lady. From a base l-d white. White skin was seen (and still is today, especially in Spain) as a mark of refined or aristocratic women. If lady is not the equivalent of lad anymore, it is due to a shift of the semantic value of the latter.

 

Welsh

llawd

delight

Ukrainian

lad

harmony

Czech

ladný

graceful

Old Czech

lada

virgin

Bulgarian

lada

fairy

Ancient Greek: Egean

lada

woman, Lycian lèda

Ancient Greek

Lēda

mother of Castor and Pollux, changed into a swan (notion of whiteness)

Caucase: Avar

ladi

woman

English

lady

woman (of a certain distinction), Fr. dame, madame; not from Gaelic ledir (a doubtful word) "with God" or from OE hlaefdige "loaf maker" (!); lad ("of unknown origin") is the masculine counterpart of lady (though not its equivalent)

 

Lemures (Roman). Wandering spirits, phantoms. From Gr. lamyrós greedy, Sanskrit lama vampire.

Lēto (Greek). Daughter of Phoebē (the moon), sister of Asteria (the stars). See Lakshmi.

Leukē (Greek). The White Isles or Elysion pedion q.v. See Eléktra.

Leukippē (Greek). Water spirits. From Romanian apă water. See Melanippos.

Libentina, Lubentea (Roman). "goddess of sensuous enjoyment". Borrowed from German lieben and Slavic lubit' to love as are also lubet "it is agreeable", libido "sexual instinct", allubentia "liking for". See next word.

Liber (Roman). God of fecundity. See preceding word.

Lilith (Hebrew). First wife of Adam; an evil spirit, one of the four mothers of the demons. Lilit is also the name of an owl. Being associated with the demons, her name also refer to darkness. From Semitic lil night, root lil- dark, blue, purple:

 

Arabic

lil

night

Hebrew

Lilith

evil spirit of the night

Aramaic

lelja

night

Sumerian

islal

obscurity, shade

Lettish

lila kerre

Tufted Duck (mostly black)

Hindil

līl, lilā

indigo, blue

Arabic: Liban

lailaki

purple

English

lilac

 (< Greek) light blue colour; lilac (flower)

Modern Greek

louláki

indigo; lilac

Albanian

lullak

dark blue

 

Logi, Loke (Scandinavian). The fire deified. See Lug.

Lougos (Gaulish). A divinity. See Lug.

Lovna. A "Celtic", benevolent goddess. Evidently from "love".

Lug (Keltish). A Keltish deity, not attested in Gaul. Its name has been translated as "raven" because of the convergence with Old Irish lug lynx, a ravenous animal. Its other name is Find "the bright one". The element lug- in toponyms (like Lugdunum Lyon), probably has nothing to do with the god. From a base l-g shining :

 

Scandinavian

Logi

the fire deified

Welsh

log

fire

Welsh

llug

glimmer

Breton

lugern

glimmer

Provençal

lugor

glimmer

Welsh

llwgwm

English lugworm glow-worm

Welsh

llwg

shiny

Keltish

Lug

a divinity, see Find

Gaulish

Lougos

a divinity

French: centre

lugue

lightning

French: West

lugat

lighting

Italian: Cortina

slùge

to shine

 

Luna (Roman). Personification of the moon, the round satellite. From a root lun- round:

 

Spanish

luna

moon

 

lunó

having a spot on the forehead (animal)

Italianreg.

lunea

sandpipers (roundish birds)

Italianreg.

luneta

Firecrest (roundish bird)

French

lunette

eye glasses, small round window

French

lentille

lentil (round and flat seed)

English

lens

lentil, magnifying glass

Germanreg.

lüning et var.

House Sparrow, linchpin

German

lun, lune, lüner, lünse

linchpin

Polish

lon

id.

 

Lutin (French). Sprite. From a base l-t light :

Swedish

lätt

light, easy

Lithuanian

litéti

lette làiti to touch lightly

Russian

letat'

to fly

Slovak

letačka

butterfly

Greek

eleútheros

free

French

lutin

elfish spirit

 

Makoran (Guanche). The gods. See Amykos.

Malvala ("Celtic"). Son of Maluta. Personification of dawn. From malva mauve (colour).

Mana (Etruscan). See Manā.

Mana (Melanesia). Supernaturel power. See Manā.

Manā. A Hindu god who was, it is said, the first man. See Manes.

Manā (Persian: Zend). God. From Mana, their Etruscan name. Cognate to Sanskrit mánas, English mind, German meinen, English to mean, Roman Minerva goddess of thought. Cf. Basque man power, faculty, Amerind Manitou the Great Spirit. See also Manes and Minerva.

 

Sardinian

manno

big

Spanish

tamaño

size

Romanian

mánină

giant, colossus

Russian

mammot

enormous animal

English

man

the tall sex

Hindi

Manà

Hindu god who was, it is said, the first man

Armenian

Manuk

id.

Gypsy

manuk

man

Asia Minor

Manire

a god that the Greeks likened to Zeus

Latin

Manes

souls of the dead

Algonquin

Manitou

the great spirit

Persian: Zend

Manā

god

Arabic

Manah

a superior intelligence

Arabic

al-Manat

Semitic goddess of fortune and destiny

Melanesia

Mana

supernatural power

Greek

menēs

titan

Tamil

man

king

Basque

manu

autority

English

many

a lot of

 

Manah (Semitic). In Arabia, a superior intelligence venerated by certain tribes. See Manā.

Manes (Roman). Souls of the dead, protector spirits. See Manā.

Mangala (Hindi). A god associated with red colour. From a base m-ng, m-nd light-coloured :

 

Hindi

Mangala

a god represented with red flesh, a red collar and red clothes

Serbo-croatian

mangal

glowing fire

Albanian

mangall

glowing fire

Albanian

krye-mangës

Goldfinch (has a red head)

Basque

mandal

phoenix

Arabic

samandal

phoenix

Tamil

manjal

yellow

 

Manire. An Asia Minor god assimilated to Zeus by the Greeks. See Manes.

Manitou (Amerind). The great spirit or supreme being of some Indian peoples of North America. See Manes.

Manuk (Armenian). The same as Manā.

Mara (Slavic). Goddess of death. See Mars.

Mars. God of war. Cf. Armenian mart combat. From a base m-r, m-rt signifying something bad, found in the following terms: Armenian marh death, Ossetic māryn to kill, English martyr (from church Latin martyrium), Sanskrit mrtah dead, Greek emorten died, maraino I destroy, Moira goddess of death, French mort death, merde excrement, German mörder, English murder, Punjabi merna to die, Gypsy merav id., Lahnda meren id., Nepali marnu id., Kashmiri marun id. Singalese marenawa id., Gujarati merwu id., Hindi merna id., Bengali mora id., Marathi merne id., Pushtu mrel id., Baluchi murtha, miragh id., Wakhi meri- id., Tadjik murdan id., Persian mordan id., Armenian meranim I die, Ukrainian mereti, mru id., Belorussian mertsi id., Bulgarian mra id., Slovene mreti, Slovak mret', mrem id., Macedonian umram id., Serbo-Croatian mrijeti to die, Upper Czech umírati id., Russian umeret' id. English to mar injure, French marri grieved, Irish marbh to die, Latin morbus disease, Hittite mer putrefy, Zend mar to die, Dravidian, mara death, marru enemy, Lithuanian mirti death, Latvian mirt id., Sanskrit marati dies, Avestan miryeite id., Greek máransis decaying, Dravidian, Telugu mragu to decay, Arabic maradu sickness, Akkadian maràsu to be sick, Italian marasmo a kind of fever, Italian marasso viper, Lithuanian maras plague, Lydian mru-, mruvaa (a stele) "was put on burial stones", etc.

Marut (Kassite). God of the plague. Cf. Lithuanian maras plague. See Mars, preceding word.

Mazan (Hittite). God, perhaps a personification of the moon. See next word.

Mazda (Persian). God of light. From a base m-s light coloured :

 

Chechen

mése

day

Old Slavic

měseci

moon, month

Sanskrit

masah

moon, month

Abkhasian

mza

moon

Oubykh

a-mdza

lamp

Hittite

Masan

god (deified moon ?)

Old Persian

Mazda

god of light

Tajik

maysai

colour of green corn

Galician

macio

pale, discoloured

French

émacié

skinny (secondary, like Latin macer)

Lettish

misinš

brass

Welsh

mis

month

Spanish

mes

Italian mese (duration of a lunation)

English

mas

"time of ..." (in Michaelmas, Martinmas, Christmas etc., no kin to mass "religious celebration")

Mēdeia. A sorceress. Cf. mēdos counsel, device, cunning.

Medousa (Medusa). One of the Gorgons, a daughter of Priam. Her gaze turned to stone everyone that looked at her. Klein derives the name from Gr. médein to protect, rule over; this, however does not agree with her history. See Mēdeia.

Megistos. Nickname of Zeus. From a base m-g convex, great, high :

 

French: Languedoc

maghêla

hill

Georgian

magal

great

Akkadian

magal

many

Lithuanian

magulos

many

Greek

méga, megálos

large

English

mogul

important figure (unrelated to the Mogols)

Berber: Menasser

moger

to grow up

Berber: Demnat

imgur

to be tall

Berber: Snus

amokran

chief of a town

Hebrew

meghedh

excellent

Arabic

magada

to be illustrious etc.

Sanskrit

mahánt-

great, powerful, venerable

 

Meleagrís (Greek). Aetolian hunter turned into a Guinea Fowl, a strikingly spotted fowl. From a root mal- "spotted):

 

Persian

mulawwan

multicoloured

Persian

malīħ

beautiful

Lithuanian

malu

to paint

Welsh

malu

to paint, breton maluf id., Old Gaelic Ireland melim id.

Latin

malo

(borrowing) to paind

German

malen

to paint

Russian

malëvka

paint

Ukrainian

malyjka

Great Spotted Woodpecker

Slovakian

malóvaný d'atel'

Great Spotted Woodpecker

Anc.Greek

meleagris

Guineafowl

Norman English

maluer

to soil, FEW 23: 193

Gaelic Scotland

smal

spot

Gaelic Ireland

smolach, smiolach

Song Thrush

Gaelic Ireland

smál

spot, cloud, darkness, disgrace

English

dismal

sinister, dreary, melancholy (with prefix dis-; certainly not from Lat. dies mali "evil days")

 

Memnōn. An Ethiopian king slain by Achilles during the Trojan war. A foreign word, probably Egyptian.

Melanippos, Leukippè. Water spirits. From Romanian apă water. See Meníppe.

Mendēs. A kind of Egyptian billy-goat and another name for Pan.

Menélas. King of Sparte, brother of Agamemnon, husband of Helen. Apparently from ménos soul, hart, courage, strength. See Manes.

Menēs. Titan. See Manes.

Melanippos, Meníppe, Leukippē. Water spirits. literally "blackwater, white water (melanos, leukos) and Romanian apâ water. Cf. also Hipparis, Hippurios.

Mercurius (Roman). Mercury, god of commerce and wealth. From merces merchandise, mercatus trade, business, marketplace.

Meropē (Aeropē is another reading) . 1. Oceanide. 2. Heliade. 3. Daughter of Kypselos. See Merops.

Meropis (Greek). Sister of Agron; was changed into a bird, see Merops.

Merops. King of Kos, father of Meropis; was placed among the stars and was change by Junon into a bird (an "eagle" according to some authors). Merops is the name of a beautiful bird, the Bee-eater. Also said to be a solar god, and a Ethiopian king who lived near the place where the sun rises. From a base m-r clear, pure :

 

Greek

ēmera

day

Greek

Hēmera

Goddess of daylight

French (dialectal)

emero

pale

Greek

Meropē

one of the Heliades

Greek

merops

Bee-eater, from its fine colours

Spanish

mero

pure

English

mere

pure, unique

 

Mídas (Greek). A Phrygian king who was endowed with the faculty of turning into gold everything he touched. Perhaps from Greek mēdos counsel, device, cunning. See Mēdeia.

Mikal (Phoenician). See Amykos.

Milda (Lithuanian). Goddess of love. From mileti to love.

Milita (Kassite). See preceding word.

Minerva (Roman), Menerva (Etruscan). Personification of thought or wisdom. From a root m-n "mind, knowledge, rason". See Manā.

 

Basque

man, mende

power, faculty

Guanche

mene, men

faculty

Aramaic

mandá

knowledge

Hebrew

madda

knowledge

Hebrew

yādhá

he knew (cf. Klein sub mind and Mandaean)

Anc.Greek

mandánō

to learn

Anc.Greek

manthaō

to learn, study

Latin

mentio

mention; mens mind, reason, memory etc.

Albanian

mendoj

think

English

mind

process that thinks, feels etc. (that gives faculties). For cognates see Klein

Latin

Minerva

goddess of wisdom

Lithuanian

minéti

to remind; miñti to think; menù to mention

French

mention

mention, reminder

Basque

mintzatu

speak

Sanskrit

mányate

to think; manati to mention

Minōs (Greek). King of Knossos. Not satisfactorily explained.

Mithra (Persian), Mitra (Vedic). God of light. He gave fruit, flowers and vegetation to the world. Later, in Asia Minor, Greece and in the Roman Empire, he became no more than the cut-throat of a bull. From a base m-tr master, leader, mother :

 

Greek

mētrópolis

principal city

Greek

mētra

belly or womb of a woman: the main part of the feminine function, whence mètèr mother, French mère

Greek: Dorian

maēèr

mother

Greek

ortygomētra

leader of the quails (Corn Crake)

Greek

métron

measure

Greek

mitra

mitre, a pointed headdress

 

Moira (Greek). Goddess of death. Cf. Latin mors, Gallo-Romance mort. See Mars.

Molóssos (Greek). Dog from Molossía, a region in Epire; a big dog. From a base m-l convex, tall, quantity :

 

Spanish

mola

large quantity

Italian

mole

stack

Latin

molossus

mastiff

Gaelic Scotland

mullach

top, summit, eminence

Gaelic Ireland

moll

stack, large quantity

Persian

mollah

religious dignitary

Hebrew

mélekh

king

English

mall

central place

Albanian

mal

mountain

Greek

mála

a lot

Greek

mallón

more

Greek

málista

above all

 

Mormō. A bogey-woman who attacked children. From a base m-rm to moan, from mormýro to scold :

 

Greek

mormyrō

to scold

Lithuanian

mirmeti

to moan

Sanskrit

marmarami

to murmur

Basque

marmuta

murmur

Catalan

maramiota

Barn Owl

 

Morpheus (Greek). God of sleep, son of Hypnos. From morphnós obscur, base m-r-f dark :

 

Greek

mórphnos, orphnós

dark coloured; a large black bird

Greek

orphnē

obscurity

Greek

Morpheus

A relation between mórphnos and orphnós "dark " and Morpheus and Orpheus seems evident

Italian

morféa

leprosy; spot on a horse coat

Portuguese

murifela

Blue Rock-Thrush

French: Walloon

mourfèlo

Dunnock

Bulgarian

moravo

dark, > Morave, a dinaric type people, with dark hair

 

Munthu (Etruscan). Goddess of finery. From a base m-n clear, moon :

 

Gaelic Scotland

meann

clear, famous

Persian: Sivand

moon, month

Kurdish, Sorani

mang

month

Greek

mēnē

moon, mèn month

Sumerian

Nanna

god of the moon

English

moon

a shining heavenly body; month; duration of a moon

Lettish

menes

moon, mēnenis month

German

mond

moon, monat month

French

monde

universe

Spanish

mondo

Latin mundus pure

Etruscan

Munthu

goddess of finery

Romanian

pămănt

the earth (with the Slavic particule pa, and not from Latin pavimentum, the earth is not made of paving stones !)

Romanian

măndru

superb

French:

   Toulouse

mannad

superb

Spanish

mañana

morning, tomorrow : at dawn

Italian

domani

tomorrow, French demain

 

Myrmex (Greek). Young girl changed into an ant. From a base m-r to move, stir :

French: Guernsey

mourion

restless

French: Valais

démworâ (se)

to play

French: Queyras

demers

restless child

Greek

myrmex

ant

Greek

marmarō

scintillate

Greek

Marmaras

Marmara Sea, cf. Dardanía, Modern Greek Dardanéllia, from a base d-rd tremble, Basque dardal trembling.

 

Muses (Greek). The personified arts. From Greek  moúsa art, science, root mus- think etc.:

 

Anc.Greek

mousóô

learned

Anc.Greek

moúsa

science, art; the Muses are the personified arts

Anc.Greek

mousikós

learned, skilled, practicing music

Italian

muso

thoughtful, pensive

French: Valais

môzâ

to think

English

muse

to reflect (certainement not from "muzzle")

French

muser

to idle

French

amuser (s')

to play; or from "muzzle").

 

Nanna (Sumerian). God of the moon. See Munthu.

Nasr (Arabic). Eagle-headed idol. A Semitic name designating some large birds of prey. The may derive from a root nat- "to fly":

 

Hebrew

natash

to fly

Arabic

nātsā

to fly

Hebrew

netz

a hawk; Syriac nitso

Arabic

nisr

Griffon Vulture

Assyrian

Nisroch

eagle-headed god

Coptic

nchire

a hawk

Berber

enisser

Griffon Vulture

Ancient Greek

nisos

(from Semitic) a hawk

Latin (from Greek)

nisus

a hawk

 

Nephelēè (Greek). The morning mist. See Nymphē.

Neptunus. Roman god of the sea. (Cf. Pokorny, p. 971).

 

Greek

nexis, nēchō

to swim

English

Nixi

a water sprite

Greek

nēktos

swimming, aquatic

Old Norse

nykr

a water monster

Sanskrit

niktá

washed

Sanskrit

snāpáyati

swim

Latin

Neptunus

(k->p) god of the sea.

Etruscan

Nethunus

Neptune

Greek

nētta, nēssa

duck

 

Nērēís (Greek). A sea nymph. Modern Greek néro water, from narós flowing, liquid.

Nisos (Greek). Son of Pandion, changed into a sea eagle. See Nasr.

Nisroch (Assyrian). An eagle-headed god. See Nasr.

Nix, Nixie (English). A water sprite. Old High German nihhus water sprite, Old Norse nykr a water monster. See Neptunus.

Nymphē (Greek). Deities inhabiting the sea, springs, woods etc. From a base n-v, n-f white :

 

German

schnee

snow

Italian

neve

snow

Romanian West

nea

snow

Sardinian

néa

dawn

Old Irish

niam

beauty

Persian

nēw

beauty

Bulgarian

nevesta

fiancée

Slavic

neveštuka

fiancée; weasel

Greek

nephélē

morning

Greek

néphos

cloud

Albanian

nafele

white throat spot of the marten

English (slang)

nifty

handsome, elegant

Welsh

nyf

snow

Greek

niphas

snow flake

Greek

nymphitza

weasel (white in winter)

Greek

nymphē

fiancée; nymph, white lady

Greek

nymphaia

water lily (white flower)

Egyptian

nfr

beauty

Egyptian

Nefertete

a beautiful queen

 

Odin. The supreme God in the Scandinavian mythology is the personified od or good fortune. Cf. Swedish öde "fate, fortune", Gothic, English odds "balance of advantage", and Low German od "well-being", auda-hafts "beglückt" (Pokorny: p. 76).

The Dutch and Low German names for the Stork odebor (and many variants) consist of the root bor, ber "to bear" (Pok.: p. 128), and od "good fortune". The stork's names therefore mean "fortune bearing (bird)", because it arrives with the good season. The Swedish odensvala (Gothland) is the swallow that brings spring.

How a legend is born. Most legends arise from the confusion caused by a phonological convergence; such convergence is often the result of the overlaying of two strata. The original signification of the word having become incomprehensible, a clearer meaning is attributed to it; the result is a "folk etymology". To arrive at this explanation, one must often give himself over to those excesses of imagination characteristic of Greek mythology. The phonological convergence which is at the origin of the legend of the stork bringing children appears to be od "good fortune" with the AS ōdan "child". This etymology has been proposed by Grimm.

Odysseus (Greek). Hero of the Odyssey, an epic poem describing the wanderings and adventures of Odysseus. A word of Illyrian origin. Cf. Romanian uditză small road, Albanian udë road, and with the change d>l, Russian ulica (ulitsa) street, whence Ulysses the Latin name for Odysseus.

Oedipus (Greek). King of Thebes, son of Laius and Jocaste. He was hanged by the feet from a tree : his feet swelled, whence his name "swollen foot", from oidán to swell and poús foot.

Ogygēs (Greek). Son of Beots or Neptune, king of the Hectenes, the first people of Beotia and Attique. The name indicates less a king than a period when Beotia and Attique, if not the whole earth, were under water (Parisot). Both Gygēs and Ogygēs are thus associated with water and their names may be cognate with Aigaia q.v.

Oiōnos. Companion of Heraklēs. A fabulous bird. The name means simply "omen".

Okeanós. Mythical river that circles the globe. From a root ok- round:

 

Serbocroatian

oko

region

Russian

oko

eye

Czech

oko

globe flower (Trollius)

Czech

okov

pail

Czech

okolek

circle, round

Ancient Greek

ōkeanós

ocean

Sumerian

oginos

ocean

Ancient Greek

okeanos

"River that surrounds the earth"; evident notion of rotundity

German

ochs

bull (compare with the etym. I.-E. *ukw son which would mean "the besprinkler" or "the one that makes grow" (!)

German: Asiago (South Tirol)

ochsenvögele

Wren  

English

ox

bull

English

oxeye

various small birds

English

oxbird

Ringed Plover

Latin

occiput

the rounded part of the head; not from "*ob caput" which would mean "behind the head" (Klein); the permutation ob > oc is impossible, the change caput to ciput unexplainable, and besides ob means "in front"

 

Okypetē (Greek). Name of a Harpy. A reference to the swift flight of hawks. From ōkypteros "rapide", Modern Greek xyptére fast, Ancient Greek oxypetēs that flies rapidly, Modern Greek xeftéri hawk.

Olēn (Greek). Mythical singer. From a base -l-l to utter a certain song :

 

Spanish:Aragon

uludá

to howl

Italian

alocco

Wood Owl

Sanskrit

ulūka

an owl

Bengali

uluk

an owl

Hindi

ulāgh

an owl

Greek

ōlēn

mythical song

Greek

ololýzō

to call with a lout voice

Greek

ololygōn

various birds, frog, cicada

Ukrainian

lulukaty

to howl

Lithuanian

lulutë

an owl

Ukrainian

uljulja

Wood Owl

Serbocroatian

ualjka

Wood Owl

Bulgarian

ululića

Wood Owl

Georgian

óloli

Wood Owl

 

Olympos (Greek). Mountain of Greece, abode of the gods. From a base l-mp shining :

 

Modern Greek

lampros

brillant

Greek

lampē

lumière

Greek

Olympos

mountain of Greece: shining when snow-covered or lit by the sun

Italian

lampa

lamp

Galician

lampo

pure

Spanish

relámpago

lightning

 

Oriōn (Greek). Personification of the constellation of Orion. From Gr. orinō to push; it is the constellation that seems to push the other stars.

Orpheus (Greek). Famous singer. See Morpheus.

Osiris (Ancient Egyptian). An Egyptian god, the Persian sun. See Asia.

Ōtos (Greek). Brother of Ephialtēs (see this word). An owl, "the eared one", either the Long-eared or the Scops Owl.

Ouranía (Greek). Muse of astronomy. See next word.

Ouranós. The sky and the abode of gods.

 

Armenian

or

day

Ossetish

ar'v

sky

Anc.Greek

ouranós

sky, Latin Uranus god of heaven

Mod.Greek

ōraios

beautiful

Gaelic: Ireland

ór

gold

French: Lens (VS)

ouroche

Yellow Gentian

Serbo-Croatian

uroš

Oriole

Gaelic: Ireland

ur

green

Welsh

ir

green, blooming

Anc.Greek

iris

rainbow, a precious stone, a flower

Armenian

awr

day, arot dawn

French

aurore

dawn

 

Pagoda (Slavic). The Spring deified, and god of the fine days. See God.

Pan (Greek). Identical with Faunus, same root.

Pandiōn (Greek). King of Attica, whose tragic daughters, Philomela and Procne, were metamorphosed into a nightingale and a swallow respectively. Father of Augeus (see this word) and Nisos who was changed into a sea eagle. Nisos was also said to be the son of Deiōn. This may explain the etymology of Pandiōn.

Pandora (Greek). The first mortal woman on whom all the gods and goddesses bestowed gifts. From pan- all, and dōron gift.

Papas (Phrygian). God or half-god also called Atys or Attis, the father of male power :

 

Sumerian

pab

father

Palaic

papa

father

Phrygian

Papas

a divinity, see Attis

Etruscan

papa

grand-father

French etc.

papa

father

 

Patrimpas (Old Prussian). God of the sun and spring.

Pegasos (Greek). Perseus' horse. See Iynx.

Pēnélopē (Greek). Daughter of Ikarios. She assumed this name after she was saved by ducks called pēnélops (She had been throwned into the floods by Nauplius). The ducks have been identified tentatively as Pintails. Numerous terms derive from the root pin- "pointed":

 

English

pin

needle; pintail a species of ducks

French

épingle

needle

English

pinwing

Auk

English

pen

writing pen (same word as following)

French

penne

rectrices or remiges (pointed shaft)

French (regional)

pennard

Pintail

Italian: Romagna

panard

id.

French

pinne

a pointed shell

Welsh

yspin

thorny bush

French

épine

prickle

Italian

pinnuliše

Hoopoe

Romanian

penel

(paint) brush

Italian: Venezia

pignol

Pintail (cf. pennard, above)

Anc.Greek

pēnelops

(borrow. from Italo-Romance) a duck, prob. the Pintail

English

pinnacle

rocher pointu

Galician

pinica

pine needle

Italian

pennachio

pointed crest

Span.

peña

pointed rock, pinnacle

Italian (dialectal)

pennino

Little Egret (pointed crest)

Italian

Pennine (Alpi)

an oronym

Ancient Greek

Pindos

an oronym; myth.: son of

Breton

penn

head

French: Haute-Ubaye

penn

montain

French: Valais

pigne

pointed mountain

 

Perkunas (Lithuanian). God of thunderstorms. Lithuanian perkuna sky, from a base p-rk spotted (the sky studded with stars), Lith. pirksnys ashes dotted with blowing coal, Modern Greek perknada freckling.

Persē (Greek). Wife of Hēlios. See Perseus.

Persephonē (Greek). Wife of Hadēs, goddess of hell.

Persēs (Greek). Son of Hēlios. See Perseus.

Perseus (Greek). Son of Zeus, hero personifying the rising sun. From a base p-rs, pr-s shining, sun :

 

Greek

Persē

wife of Hèlios (The mythological attributions to Persē point to a foreign origin of the name)

Greek

Persēs

son of Hēlios

Greek

Perseus

hero personifying the rising sun

Greek

Persephonē

wife of Hadēs, thus: she is the darkness that kills the light

Lithuanian

prushvas

sun

Albanian

prush

hot coal

 

Phaētusa (Greek). Sister of Phaethōn, q.v.

Phaea (Greek). The sow of Crommyon. From a base f-s dark :

 

Greek

phaiós

dark

Spanish

feo

ugly

Italian: Aquila

foss

dark

 

Phaethōn (Greek). Son of Hēlios. From phaein to shine, phaos light. See Hephaistos.

Phainō (Greek). Name of an Oceanid. See Phoebē.

Phōres (Greek). Nickname of the Centaure. See Ferōnia.

Philomēla (Greek). Daughter of Pandiōn changed into a nightingale. From a base f-l-m (apparently Illyrian) to sing (of birds), warble :

 

Gaelic Ireland

filoméol, filiméala

Song Thrush

Basque

txilimala

chattering

Greek

Philomēla

woman changed into a Nightingale

Romanian

filomelă, filomil

Nightingale

Hungarian

fülemüle, filmile

(pre-magyar substratum) Nightingale

Rheto-Romansh

filomela

Song Thrush

Sardinian

filomena

Nightingale

Corsican

filumêna

Nightingale

Italian (dialectal)

firumema, vilomena

Song Lark

German (dialectal)

filomele

Nightingale

 

Phoebē (Greek). Artemis, daughter of Ouranos and Gē, goddess of the moon. From a base f-n fire, light, clear :

 

Greek

phaō

glimmer

Greek

phaínō

gleaming, whitness; a nymph

Greek

phainein

to shine, to appear

Greek

phaeinos

beautiful

Greek

phaidrōs

joyfully

Greek

phanós

shiny, clear

Modern Greek

fanaós

clear, patent

Greek

phoïbos

pure, shiny

Greek

Phoebus

Apollon

Greek

Phoebe

Artemis, goddess of the moon

Modern Greek

fengós

glimmer, light

Welsh

faw

glimmer

Italian: Ticino

favögn

a warm South wind

Italian

favonio

a warm South wind

Latin

Favonius

personification of the West wind

Spanish: Aragon

fabueño

zephyr, balmy breeze

Spanish: Navarra

fagoño

zephyr, balmy breeze

Group cognate to the following :

Gothic

fōn

fire

German Swiss

föhn

warm South wind

Old Norse

funi

fire

Old Prussian

panno

fire

Greek

phoinós

red

Greek

phoenix

crimson; the Phoenicians (red-skinned people)

Greek

Phoenix

a "fabulous bird" = the rising sun

 

Phoenix, see Phoinix.

Phoibos (Greek). Epithet of Apollon. See Phoebē.

Phoinix (Greek). A fabulous bird. See Phoebē.

Piktolis (Lithuanian). God of hell. From piktas vicious.

Pindos (Greek). "Son of Makedon", simply: a mountain in Macedonia. (Makedon = "high land". From a root pin- pointed, see Pēnélopē.

Pleiádes (Greek). The seven daughters of Atlas. From a base pl- several :

 

Greek

pleiōn

more numerous

Greek

Plēiades

a group of several stars (certainly not the plural of peleias"dove", and not cognate to OE fealo "brown"; a group of stars is not characterized by its brown color)

Greek

pleistor

the most

Greek

Ploútos

personification of wealth

Latin

plures

more numerous

French

plus, plusieurs

more, several

 

Ploútos (Greek). Personification of wealth. See Plēiádes.

Podargē (Greek). Name of a Harpye. See next word.

Podargos (Greek). Name of Hektor's horse. Literally "swift-foot".

Poseidōn (Greek). God of the earthquakes and of the sea. From a base s-t, s-d to shake:

 

Ancient Greek

seiō

to shake; sēta sieve

Ancient Greek

Poseidon

(with Slavic prefic pa-, indicating it is a borrowing)  god of earthquake and of the sea

Provençal

sedo, seio

sieve

Ancien Egyptian

sda

(a loan-word) tremble; attributed to "Little Egret of Cattle Egret" but presumably a name for the Wagtail

Persian

seido

White Wagtail

Italian (dialectal)

codisaija

White Wagtail

Ukrainian

prysïdačka

White Wagtail

Sanskrit

sadanarta

White Wagtail

Gaelic Scotland

sùd

to swing

English

shudder

a convulsive movement, German schauder

 

Proknē (Greek). Daughter of Pandiōn changed into a swallow. From a base p-rk spotted :

 

Greek

perkos, perknos

dark, blackish

Greek

perē

perch, a fish with dark stripes

Sanskrit

pcnih

spotted

Lithuanian

piršnys

ashes with spots of hot coal

Lithuanian

perkunas

sky (dotted with stars)

Czech

šperk

ornament, jewel

 

Proserpine (Greek). Latin form of Persephonē.

Psychē (Greek). Personification of the soul which is something immaterial. From a base s-k indicating a movement:

 

Ancient Greek

síkinnis

a kind of dance

Ancient Greek

psychē

butterfly, soul

Ancient Greek

psyktēr

a container on a high foot: unstable

Ancient Greek

psychein

to breathe

Old English

sīcan

sigh

English

sigh

to let out one's breath audibly (with a perceptible movement)

Czech

cukati

palpitation

 

Pyrrhos. Son of Achilleus. "Fiery red". Phoenix was his governor.

Rešeph (Phoenician). A god. From a base r-g shining :

 

Assyrian

ra-ag

shining

Assyrian

ràjè

to shine

Assyrian

ravi

sun

Egyptian

re-e, ra

sun

Phoenician

Rešeph

a god

Caucasus: Lezgian

ragh

sun

Caucasus Northeast

rigu, reü, ray

sun

Berber

erēg

to blaze

Berber: Kabyle

reg

to burn

Breton

regez

glowing coal

 

Rhea (Greek). Wife of Chronos, the time. From rhéō to flow, like the time.

Sēm. Greek for Shēm q.v.

Šaro (Hittite). A god. From a base s-r variegated :

 

India: Pahari

s'āro

variegated

Sanskrit

sārāh

variegated

Sanskrit

sárvaras

spotted

Persian

šar

Starling

Greek

psar

Starling

Greek

psáros

grey

Aromanian

psar

grey

Ukrainian,

Bulgarian,

Slovenian

šar

variegated

Armenian

šar

variegated

 

Saturnus (Roman). Good of agriculture. From sator sower, borrowed from Germanic saat seed. No relation to saturnus gloomy, which is linked to a base s-d dark :

 

French (dialectal)

sadot

dirty woman

English

sad

in a dark mood

Italian

saturnino

sad

Latin

saturnus

lead, a dark metal

Romanian

sajă

soot

French: Viriat

šayó

hearth

Old French

essoydo

gloomy

 

Sethlans (Etruscan). Goddess of the fire. From a base s-d fire, red :

 

Dravidian

suda

fire

Egyptian

sdt

fire, flame

Phoenician

Sydyk

personification of fire

Akkadian

sudu

to redden

Akkadian

sutu

south wind

Ougaritic

stj

to burn

Copt

sath

flame

Etruscan

Sethlans

god of fire

Kurdish

sotin, sūtandin

to burn

English

south

region of the light

Old High German

suedan

to burn

Latin

sidonius

red

Old Norse

suidel

torch

 

Shēm (Hebrew). One of Noah sons, after whom the Semitic peoples were named. From a base s-m dark:

 

Sanskrit

syāma

blackish-grey

Arabic

šam

the North

Persian

šām

evening; Syria

Assyrian

šim

darkness

Assyrian

simtu

black

Assyrian

simētan

twilight

Persian

simurgh

a fabulous bird

Persian

siyāh

black

 

Simurgh (Persian). A mythical bird. See Shèm.

Simzerla (Slavic). Goddess of the flowers. From a base s-m warm :

 

Slavic

Simzerla

goddess of flowers, wife of Pagoda, the god of fine days

Gaelic Ireland

samhrad

summer

English

sommer

German Sommer été

Egyptian

šm

to be hot; šmw summer

Assyrian

Sumeru

Sumer, an ancient region in the Levant

Baluchi

samir

flame-coloured

 

syphos (Greek). A crafty king of ancient Corinth, condemned in the netherworld to roll forever up a hill a rock, which constantly rolled down again.

 

Ancient Greek

Sísyphos

figure. Indicates the movement of the stone that keeps rolling down

Ancient Greek

seisō

to shake

Ancient Greek

seisopygis

White Wagtail

Ancient Greek

seistron

rattle, instrument used by agitating

Stentōr (Greek). Greek herald with a powerful voice. From a base (s)t-n to produce a sound :

 

Sanskrit

stanami

to sound, to grunt

Greek

sténein

to grunt, to call loud

Lithuanian

steneti

sigh

Russian

stenati

to groan

Greek

stónos

groan, noise

Russian

ston

groan

German

stöhnen

to groan

Greek

stombós

sounding

Greek

Stentōr

mythical figure with a powerful voice

Italian

tenore

high-toned man's voice (no kin to French tenir to hold)

 

Sul (Gaulish). Solar goddess. Spanish sol, French soleil sun.

Sus (Sanskrit). Demon. From a base s-s black, dirty, soiled with black :

 

Albanian

xëc

darkness

Italian

sozzo

dirty

French: Valais

sötse

soot

Lettish

cūciba

filthy

Spanish

sucio

dirty

Italian

sucido

dirty

Gaulish

Sus

demon

Latin

suasus

dirty with soot

Greek

sus, suós

pig

Latin

sus

pig

 

Suzanna (Roman). Daughter of Elcias remarkable by her beauty (she was presumably blond). Root s-s yellow:

 

Greek

souchion, soúkinos

made of ambre

Latin

sucinus

(empr. au gr.) ambre yellow, French succin

French

souci et var.

Firecrest, (cf. Italian fiorrancino and English marigold, both designating the flower and the bird)

French reg.

suissard

wallflower (yellow)

French

souci

also suçou, souzane, suzanne various yellow flowers

French: Loire

suzane, suzette

yellow primrose

Galician

suzon

ragwort, heath groundsel (yellow flower)

English (America)

suzan (blackeyed)

various yellow composite flowers

Latin

Susanna

daughter of Elcias remarkable by her beauty (she was presumably blond)

 

Sydyk (Phoenician). Personification of fire. See Sethlans.

Syros (Greek). An Anatolian solar god, probably eponym of Syria, land of the Levant. From a base s-r red :

 

Sanskrit

surgas

sun

Akkadian

sur

splendor

Persian: Sangesari

sur

red

Persian

suranj

red

Greek

Syría

Assyria, land of the Levant

Greek

Sýros

Anatolian solar god

Greek

Sēres

people of eastern Asia identified with the Chinese

Armenian

sirani

purple-red

Arabic: Morocco

surendem

Flamingo

Persian: Sivand

sīr

red

Baluchi

sor

reddish

India: Marw

sor

red; gold (metal)

 

Taranis (Gaulish). God of thunder, equivalent of Jupiter. From a base t-r-n to sound :

 

French, South

terena

bumble-bee

Breton

taran

thunder

Gaulish

Taranis

god of thunder

Provençal

terin

voice

French: Vendôme

tariner

to chat

French

train

noise etc.

 

Tecum (Etruscan). A celestial god. From a base t-g, t-k daylight, reddish, yellow :

 

Old Irish

tēg

beautiful

Breton

tekenn

pretty girl, graceful woman

Gaelic Ireland

téigh

hot

Breton

tez

heat that taint

Kurdish:Sorani

taw

heat  

German

tag

day

Etruscan

Tecum

a celestial god

Spanish

taheno

having a red beard

Italian: Cortina

tagin

reddish colour

Armenian

teghin, dèłn,

yellow

Armenian

teghmuts

yolk

Armenian

tukh

brown

Modern Greek

stachteros

ashy, grey

Arabic

degah, degnah

darkness

Berber

tadugguat

evening

 

Tereus (Greek). A Thracian prince, husband of Procne, changed into a hoopoe. The name alludes to the conspicuous crest of this bird. From Greek tiara, Persian tara a Persian headwear.

Teufel (German). Devil. See Typhōn.

Teutates (Gaulish). A cruel god. Personification of their ennemy, the Teutons.

Thana (Etruscan). A mountain fairy. See Diana.

Theos (Greek). Same as Zeus. See Dios.

Thesan (Etruscan). Goddess of dawn. See Dios.

Thetis (Greek). God of the sea. From Albanian deti "sea" (probably an Illyrian word).

Tinia (Etruscan). A goddess. See Diana.

Tios (Phrygian). God. See Zeus.

Titō Personification of daylight. See Toth .

Titān, see next word.

Titānes (Greek). Giants, sons of Ouranos (the sky) and Gaea (the earth), whose eldest was Titan. From a base t-t, d-d tall :

 

Lithuanian

didis

tall

Lithuanian

didutis

Stork (tall on legs)

Greek

Titan

a giant god

 

Tithōnos (Greek). Wife of dawn. See Toth.

Tiw (Old High German). God. See Dios.

Toth (Ancient Egyptian). The supreme god, probably the sun. From a base t-t, d-d sun, daylight:

 

Gaelic Scotland

tiotan

sun

Egyptian

Toth

supreme god, probably the sun

Tokharian

tuta

dirty yellow

Greek

titō

daylight